Biomass is an industry for burning energy by burning wood, and other organic matter. Burning biomass releases carbon emissions, but has been classified as a renewable energy source in the EU and a legal framework, because it can be replaced by new growth. It has become popular among coal power stations, which switch from coal to biomass in order to convert to renewable energy generation. Biomass most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, and are commonly called lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy source, biomass can be used directly by combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after conversion to various forms of biofuel. Can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical. Some chemical constituents of plant biomass include lignins, cellulose, and hemicellulose.
In terms of biomass is used as fuel, percentages are gathered in the United States of 2016. 5% is considered primary energy in the US Making 5% of primary energy, about 48% comes from biofuels (mostly ethanol), 41 % from wood based biomass, and around 11% from municipal waste. Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time when people began burning wood to make fire. Even today, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically-produced based on carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The estimated biomass production in the world is 104.9 petagrams (104.9 × 10 15 g – about 105 billion metric tons) of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today; examples include forest residues, tree clippings, yard chips and even municipal solid waste. Wood energy is derived by using lignocellulosic biomass (second-generation biofuels) as fuel. Harvested wood can be used as a fuel oil or as a feedstock for fuel pellets or other forms of fuels. The largest source of energy from pulping liquor or “black liquor,” a waste product of pulp processes, paper and paperboard industry. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil). Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified broadly into two major categories. First-generation biofuels are derived from sources such as sugarcane and corn starch. Sugars present en cette biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, an alcohol fuel which can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or add an additive to gasoline. However, utilizing food-based resources for fuel production only aggravates the food shortage problem. Second-generation biofuels, on the other hand, utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as agriculture and municipal waste. These biofuels mostly consist of lignocellulosic biomass, which is not limited and is a low-value waste for many industries. Despite being the favored alternative, economics production of second-generation biofuel is not yet achieved These issues arise mainly from chemical inertness and structural rigidity of lignocellulosic biomass. Plant energy is produced by crops with high energy output. 7.5-8 tonnes of grain per hectare, and straw, which typically yields 3.5-5 tonnes per hectare in the UK. The grain can be used for liquid transportation while the straw can be burned to produce heat or electricity. Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can be used as a first-generation biofuel. The main contributors of waste are municipal solid waste, manufacturing waste, and landfill gas. The second largest source of energy in the US is between 2000 and 2020. Biomass can be converted to other forms of energy such as methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural waste, all release methane gas, also called landfill gas or biogas. Crops such as corn and sugarcane can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel ethanol. Biodiesel, another fuel transportation, can be produced from leftover food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. Several biodiesel companies simply collect cooking oil and convert it into biodiesel. Also, biomass-to-liquids (called “BTLs” ) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research. There is some research involving algae or algae-derived biomass, as this non-food resource can be produced at rates of other types of land-based agriculture, such as corn and soy. Once harvested, it can be fermented to produce biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and methane, as well as biodiesel and hydrogen. Efforts are made to identify which species of algae are most suitable for energy production. Genetic engineering approaches could also be used to improve microalgae as a source of biofuel. The biomass used for electricity generation varies by region. Forest by-products, such as wood residues, are common in the US. Agricultural waste is common in Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and Southeast Asia (rice husks). Animal husbandry residues, such as poultry litter, are common in the UK. Sewage sludge can be another source of biomass. For example, the Omni Processor is a process which uses sludge as a fuel for sludge treatment, with surplus electrical energy being generated for export.
The total annual primary production of biomass is just over 100 billion (1.0E + 11) tonnes of carbon / yr, and the energy reserve per tonne of biomass is between about 1.5 × 10 3 and 3 × 10 3 kilowatt hours (5 × 10 6 and 10 × 10 6 BTU), gold 24.8 TW average, then biomass could be 1.4 times the annual average 150 × 10 3 terawatt-hours required for current world energy consumption. For reference, the total solar power on earth is 174 PW. The biomass equivalent to solar energy ratio is 143 ppm (parts per million), from current living system coverage on Earth. The best currently available solar cell efficiency is 20-40%. Additionally, Earth’s internal radioactive energy production, largely the driver for volcanic activity, continental drift, etc., is in the same range of power, 20 TW. At around 50% carbon mass content in biomass,
* Oil palm: fronds 11 ton / acre, whole fruit bunches 1 ton / acre, trunks 30 ton / acre
* Energy Sorghum
Thermal conversions === Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form. Also known as thermal oil heating, it is a type of indirect heating in which a liquid phase heat transfer medium is heated and circulated to one or more heat energy users within a closed loop system. The basic alternatives of combustion (torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification) are separated by the extent to which the chemical reactions are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature). Energy created by burning biomass is more rapidly, eg tropical countries. There are a number of other less common, hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) and hydroprocessing. Some have been developed for the use of high moisture content biomass, including aqueous slurries, and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a typical dedicated biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 20-27% (higher heating value basis). Biomass cofiring with coal, by contrast, has been shown to be more efficient (30-40%, higher heating value basis). Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a typical dedicated biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 20-27% (higher heating value basis). Biomass cofiring with coal, by contrast, has been shown to be more efficient (30-40%, higher heating value basis). Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a typical dedicated biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 20-27% (higher heating value basis). Biomass cofiring with coal, by contrast, has been shown to be more efficient (30-40%, higher heating value basis).
A range of chemical processes can be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to be more easily used, transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself. Many of these processes are based on a large number of similar coal-based processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol production, olefins (ethylene and propylene), and similar chemical or fuel feedstocks. In most cases, the first step involves gasification, which step is the most expensive and involves the greatest technical risk. Biomass is more difficult to feed into the world. Therefore, biomass gasification is frequently done at atmospheric pressure and causes combustion of biomass to produce a fuel gas consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and traces of methane. This gas mixture, called a producer gas, can provide fuel for various vital processes, such as internal combustion engines, as a substitute for heating oil in direct heat applications. This method is far more attractive than ethanol or biomass production, where only particular biomass materials can be used to produce a fuel. In addition, biomass gasification is a desirable process for producing gas, which is a very useful fuel. Biofuel conversion can also be achieved through selective conversion of individual components of biomass. For example, cellulose can be converted to intermediate platform chemical such as sorbitol, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural etc. These chemicals are then further reacted to produce hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels. Biomass also has the potential to be converted to multiple commodity chemicals. Halomethanes were successfully produced by a combination of A. fermentans and engineered S. cerevisiae. This method converts NaX salts and unprocessed biomass such as switchgrass, sugarcane, corn stover, or poplar into halomethanes. S-adenosylmethionine, which is naturally occurring in S. cerevisiae, allows a group to be transferred. Production levels of 150 mg L-1H-1 iodomethane were achieved. At these levels approximately 173000 L of capacity would need to be operated just to replace the United States’ need for iodomethane. However, an advantage of this method is that it uses NaI rather than I2; NaI is significantly less hazardous than I2. This method can be applied to produce ethylene in the future. Other chemical processes such as converting straight and waste vegetable oils into biodiesel is transesterification.
As biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have been developed in the field of biomass, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed. Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other microorganisms to break down biomass into gaseous or liquid fuels, such as biogas or bioethanol. In most cases, microorganisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion, fermentation, and composting. Glycoside hydrolases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of the major fraction of biomass, such as polysaccharides present in starch and lignocellulose. Thermostable variants are gaining increasing roles as catalysts in biorefining applications in the future bioeconomy, since recalcitrant biomass often needs treatment for more efficient degradation. Some examples in today’s processing include production of monosaccharides for food applications and their use for microbial conversion to metabolites such as bioethanol and chemical intermediates, oligocaccharide production for prebiotic (nutrition) applications and production of surfactants alkyl glycoside type.
In addition to combustion, biomass / biofuels can be directly converted to electrical energy through electrochemical (electrocatalytic) oxidation of the material. This direct carbon direct fuel cell, direct liquid fuel cells such as direct ethanol fuel cell, has a direct methanol fuel cell, a direct formic acid fuel cell, L-ascorbic acid fuel cell (vitamin C fuel cell), and a microbial fuel cell. The fuel can be consumed via a fuel cell system containing a reformer which converts the biomass into a mixture of CO and H2 before it is consumed in the fuel cell.
The biomass power generation industry in the United States consists of approximately 11,000 MW of summer operating capacity to supply power to the grid, and produces about 1.4 percent of the US electricity supply. Public Service of New Hampshire (MWS) in 2006 replaced at 50 MW coal boiler with a new 50 MW biomass boiler at its Schiller Station facility in Portsmouth, NH. The boiler’s biomass fuel is from sources in NH, Massachusetts and Maine. Currently, the New Hope Power Partnership in Palm Beach County, Florida is the largest biomass power plant in the US. The 140 MW facility uses sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and recycled urban wood as fuel to generate enough power for its large milling and refining operations as well as supply electricity for nearly 60,000 homes. In Vermont in 2017,
Second-generation biofuels were not (in 2010) produced commercially, but a significant number of research activities were taking place in North America, Europe and also in some emerging countries. These methods are used to reproduce enzymes or bacteria from various sources, including excretion grown in cell cultures or hydroponics. There are huge potential for second generation biofuels but non-edible feedstock resources are highly under-utilized.
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulates and other pollutants some cases (such as with indoor heating and cooking). Use of wood biomass as a fuel can also produce less particulate and other pollutants than open burning as seen in wildfires or direct heat applications. Black carbon – a pollutant created by combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass – is possibly the second largest contributor to global warming. In 2009, it has been widely reported that it has been predominantly produced by biomass, and to a greater extent by fossil fuel combustion. Researchers measured a significant concentration of 14 C (Carbon-14), which is associated with recent plant life rather than with fossil fuels. Biomass power plant size is often driven by biomass availability in close proximity to the cost of the (bulky) fuel play a key factor in the plant’s economics. Rail and especially shipping on waterways can significantly reduce transport costs, which has led to a global biomass market. To make small plants of 1 MW el economically profitable those power plants need to be able to convert to biomass to medium. Such small power plants can be found in Europe. We burn, Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO 2). The amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight. However, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, plant matter can be replaced by planting for new growth. Where the biomass is from forests, the time to recapture the carbon storage capacity, and the carbon storage capacity of the forest may be reduced overall if destructive forestry techniques are employed. Industry professionals claim that a range of issues can affect a plant’s ability to comply with standard emissions. Some of these challenges, unique to biomass plants, include inconsistent fuel supplies and age. The type and amount of the fuel supply are completely related factors; the fuel can be in the form of debris or agricultural waste (such as removal of invasive species or orchard trimmings). In addition, many of the biomass plants are old, and have not been standardized to meet stringent standards. In fact, many are based on technologies developed by US President Jimmy Carter, who created the United States Department of Energy in 1977. The US Energy Information Administration projected that by 2017, biomass is expected to be as high as gas, more expensive than nuclear power, and much less expensive than solar panels. In another EIA study released, concerning the government’s plan to implement a 25% renewable energy standard by 2025, the agency assumed that 598 million tons of biomass would be available, accounting for 12% of the renewable energy in the plan. The adoption of biomass-based energy plants has been a slow but steady process. Between the years of 2002 and 2012 the production of these plants has increased 14%. In the United States, alternative electricity-production sources 13% of power; of this fraction, biomass contributes approximately 11% of the alternative production. According to a study conducted in early 2012, the 107 operating biomass plants in the United States, have been cited by federal or state regulators for the violation of clean air or water laws over the past 5 years. This data also includes minor offenses. Despite harvesting, biomass crops can sequester carbon. For example, soil organic carbon has been observed at a higher level than in cultivated cropland soil, especially at depths below. The grass sequesters the carbon in its root biomass. Typically, perennial crops are much more important than non-harvested living biomass, both living and dead, and much less disruption in cultivation. The proposal that is biomass is carbon-neutral put forward in the early 1990s that is more mature than that of mature, intact forests sequester carbon more effectively than cut-over areas. When a tree’s carbon is released into the atmosphere in a single pulse, it contributes to climate change much more than woodland timber rotting slowly over decades. Current studies indicate that ” which removes more nutrients and soil cover than regular harvesting, and can be harmful to the long-term health of the forest. In some jurisdictions, forest biomass removal is one of the most important features of forest ecosystems. Environmental groups also cite recent scientific research, which is one of the most important examples of carbon recovery in the world. furthermore, logging operations may disturb forest soils and cause them to release stored carbon. In light of the pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the effects of climate change,
With the seasonality of biomass supply and a great variability in sources, supply chains play a key role in cost-effective delivery of bioenergy. There are several potential challenges to bioenergy supply chains: Technical issues