A carbon offset is a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions or greenhouse gases made in order to offset offset emissions elsewhere. Carbon offsets are measured in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) and may represent six primary categories of the greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6). One carbon offset represents the reduction of one tonne of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. There are two markets for carbon offsets. In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities, they are allowed to emit. This market is subject to compliance with the obligations of the parties under the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emission Trading Scheme. In 2006, about $ 5.5 billion of carbon offsets were sold in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO 2 e reductions. In the much smaller, voluntary market, individual companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. For example, an individual may purchase carbon offsets to compensate for the greenhouse gas emissions caused by personal air travel. Many companies (see list) offer carbon offsets as they sell their products to consumers and customers. good, etc.). In 2008, about $ 705 million of carbon offsets were paid in the voluntary market, representing about 123.4 million metric tons of CO 2 e reductions. Some fuel suppliers in the United Kingdom offer fuel as a result of such fuel dyes. Offsets are typically achieved through financial support of projects that reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the long-term short-term gold. The most common project type is renewable energy, such as wind farms, biomass energy, or hydroelectric dams. Others include energy efficiency projects, the destruction of industrial pollutants or agricultural byproducts, destruction of landfill methane, and forestry projects. Some of the most popular carbon offset projects from a corporate perspective are energy efficiency and wind turbine projects. Carbon offsetting has gained some appeal and momentum mainly among consumers who have become aware of the potential negative environmental effects of energy-intensive lifestyles and economies. The Kyoto Protocol has been sanctioned offsets as a way for governments and private companies to earn carbon credits that can be traded on a marketplace. The protocol established by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which validates and measures projects to ensure they produce authentic benefits and are genuinely “additional” activities that would not otherwise have been undertaken. Organizations that are unable to meet their emissions quotas can offset their emissions by buying CDM-approved Certified Emissions Reductions. Emissions from burning fuel, such as red diesel, has driven one UK fuel supplier to create a carbon offset fuel named Carbon Offset Red Diesel. Offsets may be cheaper or more convenient alternatives to reducing one’s own fossil-fuel consumption. However, some criticism of carbon offsets, and the question of the benefits of certain types of offsets. This approach is based on the principles of quality assurance and the identification of “good quality” offsets to ensure offsetting provides the desired additional environmental benefits, and to avoid reputational risk associated with poor quality offsets. Offsets are viewed as an important policy tool to maintain stable economies and to improve sustainability. One of the hidden dangers of climate change is one of the hidden dangers of carbon trading, which can be reduced to a lower carbon price. effectively permit, equalizing the price.
Carbon offsets have several common features:
In 2009, 8.2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent worldwide, up 68 percent from 2008, according to the study by carbon-market research firm Carbon Point, of Washington and Oslo. But at EUR94 billion, or about $ 135 billion, the market value was nearly unchanged compared with 2008, with EUR11.40 per ton, down from 40 percent from the previous year, according to the study. The World Bank’s “State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2010” put the overall value of the market at $ 144 trillion, but found it to be a significant part of this figure. · 90% of voluntary offset volumes were contracted by the private sector – where corporate social responsibility and industry leadership were primary motives for offset purchases.
The global carbon market is dominated by the European Union, where they are able to meet the requirements of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Europe, which has seen volatile carbon prices in the world, and will continue to dominate the global carbon market for another few years, as the US and China-the world’s top polluters-have yet to establish reduction policies.
The US market is primarily a voluntary market, but multiple cap and trade schemes are either fully implemented or near-imminent at the regional level. The first mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to cut CO 2 in the US, called the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), kicked into gear in Northeastern states in 2009, growing nearly tenfold to $ 2.5 billion, according to Point Carbon. Western Climate Initiative (WCI) -a regional cap-and-trade program including seven western states and four Canadian provinces-has established a regional target for reducing heat-trapping emissions of 15 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. A component of California ‘s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, kicked off in early 2013,
The CDM identified over 200 types of projects for generating carbon offsets, which are grouped into broad categories. These project types include renewable energy, methane abatement, energy efficiency, reforestation and fuel switching.
Renewable energy offsets commonly include wind power, solar power, hydroelectric power and biofuel. Some of these offsets are used to reduce the cost of renewable energy and renewable energy sources. Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) are also sometimes treated as carbon offsets, though the concepts are distinct. A carbon offset represents a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, a REC represents a quantity of energy produced from renewable sources. To convert RECs into offsets, the clean energy must be converted into carbon reductions, typically by assuming that the clean energy is displacing an equivalent amount of conventionally produced electricity from the local grid. This is known as an indirect offset (because the reduction does not • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Intel corporation is the largest purchaser of renewable power in the US.
Some offset projects consist of the combustion or containment of methane generated by farm animals (by use of anaerobic digester), landfills or other industrial waste. Methane has a global warming potential (GWP) 23 times that of CO 2; when combusted, each molecule of methane is converted to one molecule of CO 2, thus reducing the global warming effect by 96%. An example of a project using anaerobic digester can be found in Chile, where the largest pork production company in Chile, initiated a voluntary process to implement advanced waste management systems (anaerobic and aerobic digestion of hog manure), in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
While carbon offsets that fund renewable energy projects, energy conservation projects. Carbon offsets in this category of projects:
Industrial pollutants such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) have a number of carbon dioxide by volume. Because these pollutants are easily captured and destroyed at their source, they have a large and low-cost source of carbon offsets. As a category, HFCs, PFCs, and N 2 O reductions represent 71 per cent of offsets issued under the CDM.
Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) projects focus on natural carbon sinks such as forests and soil. Deforestation, particularly in Brazil, Indonesia and parts of Africa, account for 20 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. Deforestation can be avoided by directly paying for forest preservation, or by using offset funds to provide substitutes for forest-based products. Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, which may be included in a post-Kyoto agreement. REDD credits provide carbon offsets for the protection of forests, and provide a possible mechanism for the funding of forests in the world. Almost half of the world ‘ s people burn wood (gold fiber dung) for their cooking and heating needs. Fuel-efficient cook stoves can reduce fuel wood consumption by 30 to 50%, although the warming of the earth due to decreases in particulate matter (ie smoke) from such fuel-efficient stoves has not been addressed. There are a number of different types of LULUCF projects:
Voluntary purchasers can offset their carbon emissions by purchasing mandated cap-and-trade programs such as the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative or the European Emissions Trading Scheme. By purchasing the allowances that power plants, oil refineries, and industrial facilities. Voluntary purchases may also be made through small-scale and unrestricted schemes, such as those offered by South African based Promoting Access to the Carbon Equity Center (PACE), which nevertheless offers clear services such as poverty alleviation in the form of renewable energy development. Also, “easy carbon credits are coming to an end”,
It may be used as a carbon offset project, and may be used as a carbon trading and emission trading scheme, such as the European Union Emission Trading Scheme or Kyoto Protocol, as Certified Emission Reductions. European emissions allowances for the 2008-2012 second phase were selling for between 21 and 24 Euros per metric ton of CO 2 as of July 2007. The voluntary Chicago Climate Exchange CCX members who have voluntarily agreed to meet emissions reduction targets. The Western Climate Initiative, a regional greenhouse gas emissions initiative, and the United States, includes an offset scheme. Likewise, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, a similar program in the Northeastern US, including an offset program. A credit mechanism that may be incorporated into such schemes as the Australian Carbon Exchange.
A UK offset provider set up a carbon offsetting scheme that sets up a secondary market for treadle pumps in developing countries. These pumps are used by farmers, using human power, in place of diesel pumps. However, because they are usually used to pump water from deep boreholes, it is not clear that the pumps are actually achieving real emissions reductions. Other companies have explored and rejected as a viable carbon offsetting approach.
Carbon retirement involves withdrawing allowances from emission trading schemes and a method for offsetting carbon emissions. Under the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, EU Emission Allowances (EUAs), which represent the right to release carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, are issued to all the major polluters. The theory is that by buying these allowances and permanently removing them, the price of EUAs increases and provides an incentive for industrial companies to reduce their emissions.
Due to their indirect nature, many types of offset are difficult to verify. Some certifiers obtain independent certification. The credibility of the various certification providers is often questioned. Certified offsets can be purchased from commercial or non-profit organizations for US $ 2.75-99.00 per tonne of CO 2, due to fluctuations of market price. Annual carbon dioxide emissions in developed countries range from 6 to 23 tons per capita. The method of accounting for a valid offset system for voluntary reduction systems. However, formal standards for quantification are based on collaboration between emitters, regulators, environmentalists, and project developers. These standards include the Voluntary Carbon Standard, Green-e Climate, the Chicago Climate Exchange, and the CDM Gold Standard, the latter of which is developed for the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. Accounting for offsets may address the following basic areas:
Overall, carbon offsets the environment by reducing the amount of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. Offset projects also lead to a number of co-benefits such as better water quality and healthier communities. Whereas the primary goal of carbon offsets is to reduce global carbon emissions, many offset projects These additional improvements are termed co-benefits, and may be considered when evaluating and comparing carbon offset projects. Some possible co-benefits from a project that replace wood-burning stoves with ovens using a carbon-intensive fuel include: Carbon offset projects can also negatively affect quality of life. For example, people who earn their livelihoods from collecting firewood and selling it. A paper from the Overseas Development Institute offers some indicators to be used in assessing the potential for development of carbon emissions. operating costs. The UNFCCC has created a dedicated website where they are able to report their co-benefits on a voluntary basis. A paper from the Overseas Development Institute offers some indicators to be used in assessing the potential for development of carbon emissions. operating costs. The UNFCCC has created a dedicated website where they are able to report their co-benefits on a voluntary basis. A paper from the Overseas Development Institute offers some indicators to be used in assessing the potential for development of carbon emissions. operating costs. The UNFCCC has created a dedicated website where they are able to report their co-benefits on a voluntary basis.
IngentaConnect down arrow down arrow down arrow down arrow logo Carbon Offsets, in 2009, the UK Government has launched a scheme for regulating carbon offset products. DEFRA have created the “Approved Carbon Offsetting” endorsement on offsets approved by the UK government. The Scheme standards for best practice in offsetting. Approved offsets de l’assurance de l’assurance de l’assurance de l’assurance pour la qualité assurance pour la qualité assurance pour la assurances assurance. wishing to offset their emissions to identify quality offsets. Critics of the closure businesses and individuals would struggle to identify quality carbon offsets. In 2012 the scheme was relaunched with the Quality Assurance Standard (QAS). The QAS is now run independently by Quality Assurance Standard Ltd., which is a limited liability company based in the United Kingdom. The Quality Assurance Standard is a comprehensive independent audit system for carbon offsets. Approved offsets are checked against a 40-point checklist to ensure they meet the highest standards in the world. On 17 July 2012, the first organizations were approved as meeting the new QAS. The Quality Assurance Standard is a comprehensive independent audit system for carbon offsets. Approved offsets are checked against a 40-point checklist to ensure they meet the highest standards in the world. On 17 July 2012, the first organizations were approved as meeting the new QAS. The Quality Assurance Standard is a comprehensive independent audit system for carbon offsets. Approved offsets are checked against a 40-point checklist to ensure they meet the highest standards in the world. On 17 July 2012, the first organizations were approved as meeting the new QAS.
The Australian government is currently in a consultation period on the regulation of Carbon Offsets. On 20 December 2013, the Australian Government released the Emissions Reduction Fund Green Paper outlining its preferred design options for the Emissions Reduction Fund: a carbon buy-back model. The Government invites public comment and writing on the Green Paper by 5pm on Friday 21 February 2014.
Less than 30 pence in every pound on carbon offset schemes goes directly to projects designed to reduce emissions. The figures reported by the BBC and based on a data reported that typically 28p goes to the set up and maintenance costs of an environmental project. 34p goes to the company that takes the risk that the project may fail. The project’s investors take 19p, with smaller amounts of money being distributed between organizations involved in brokering and auditing the carbon credits. In this respect, the offspring are more likely to be producers,
Some activists disagree with the principle of carbon offsets, likening them to Roman Catholic indulgences, a way for the guilty to pay for absolution rather than changing their behavior. George Monbiot, an English environmentalist and writer, says that carbon offsets are an excuse for business as usual. Proponents hold that the indulgence analogy is flawed because they claim carbon offsets actually reduce carbon emissions, changing the business as usual, and therefore the root cause of climate change. Proponents of carbon offsets, energy efficiency, methane biodigesters and reforestation projects, and claim to be considered for the purpose of carbon offsets. On October 16, 2009 responsibletravel.com, a strong voice in favor of carbon offsetting, stating that it would be off-limits to its customers, stating that “too often offsets are being used by the industry in developing countries to justify growth plans on the basis of that money will be donated to projects in the world. On 4 February 2010, travel networking site Vida Loca Travel announced that they would donate 5 percent of profits to the International Medical Corps, as they feel that they are more effective at cutting global warming in the long term than carbon offsetting, citing the work of economist Jeffrey Sachs. It is expected that its customers will be offsetting to its customers, stating that “it is too often offsets are being used by the world market in developing countries. not be put this way. ” On 4 February 2010, travel networking site Vida Loca Travel announced that they would donate 5 percent of profits to the International Medical Corps, as they feel that they are more effective at cutting global warming in the long term than carbon offsetting, citing the work of economist Jeffrey Sachs. It is expected that its customers will be offsetting to its customers, stating that “it is too often offsets are being used by the world market in developing countries. not be put this way. ” On 4 February 2010, travel networking site Vida Loca Travel announced that they would donate 5 percent of profits to the International Medical Corps, as they feel that they are more effective at cutting global warming in the long term than carbon offsetting, citing the work of economist Jeffrey Sachs.
Some environmentalists have questioned the effectiveness of tree-planting projects for carbon offset purposes. Critics point to the following issues with tree planting projects:
Tree-planting projects can cause conflicts with indigenous people. For example, a World Rainforest Movement report documents land claims and human rights abuses at Mount Elgon. In March 2002, a few days before receiving Forest Stewardship Council certification for a project near Mount Elgon, the Uganda Wildlife Authority evicted more than 300 families from the area and destroyed their homes and crops. That the project was taking place in an area of conflict and it did not work. A 2011 report by Oxfam International describes a case where over 20,000 farmers in Uganda were displaced for a FSC-certified plantation to offset carbon by the London-based New Forests Company
Several standard certification exist, offering variations for measuring baseline emissions, reductions, additionality, and other key criteria. However, no single standard governs the industry, and some offset providers have been criticized on the grounds that they are exaggerated or misleading. Problems include:
Because they provide a back-up stream for the reduction of certain types of emissions, they can provide incentives for further reduction, so that they can be reduced to high levels of artificially high baseline. This is especially the case for offsets with a high profit margin. For example, a Chinese company generated $ 500 million in carbon offsets by installing a $ 5 million incinerator to burn the HFCs produced by the manufactory of refrigerants. HFCs and then destroying the resultant pollutants to generate offsets. Not only is this adverse outcome undesirable, it undermines other collapse. HFC-23. The practice has become so common. In Nigeria oil companies flare off 40 percent of the natural gas found. The 1.5 million offset credits a year. United States company Pan Ocean Oil Corporation has also applied for credits in Nigeria. Oilwatch.org’s Michael Karikpo calls this “outrageous”, “flirting is illegal in Nigeria, adding that” “It’s like a criminal demanding money to stop committing crimes”. The 1.5 million offset credits a year. United States company Pan Ocean Oil Corporation has also applied for credits in Nigeria. Oilwatch.org’s Michael Karikpo calls this “outrageous”, “flirting is illegal in Nigeria, adding that” “It’s like a criminal demanding money to stop committing crimes”. The 1.5 million offset credits a year. United States company Pan Ocean Oil Corporation has also applied for credits in Nigeria. Oilwatch.org’s Michael Karikpo calls this “outrageous”, “flirting is illegal in Nigeria, adding that” “It’s like a criminal demanding money to stop committing crimes”.
Although many carbon offset projects all of their environmental co-benefits, some are having negative effects. Point Carbon has been reported to be inconsistent with some hydro-electric projects as carbon offsets; Some countries in the EU are not allowing large projects in the EU, because of their environmental impacts, even though they have been awarded by the UNFCCC and World Commission on Dams. It is difficult to assess the exact results of carbon offsets given that they are a relatively new form of carbon reduction, and it is possible that some carbon offset sales are made to increase positive business public relations rather than to help. the issue of greenhouse gas emissions. Offset projects may also have negative social impacts,
* Definition: Carbon Offsets