District heating

District heating is a system for distributed heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating. The heat is often obtained from a fossil fuel burning plant but also biomass, heat-only boiler stations, geothermal heating, heat pumps and central heating are also used. District heating plants can provide greater efficiencies and better pollution control than localized boilers. According to some research, the district heating and combined heat and power (CHPDH) is the cheapest method of cutting carbon emissions, and has one of the lowest carbon footprints of all fossil generation plants. A combination of CHP and centralized heat pumps are used in the Stockholm multi energy system. This allows the production of heat when there is an abundance of intermittent power generation and power generation and intermittent power generation.

Heat sources in use for various district heating systems include: power plants designed for combined heat and power (CHP, also called co-generation), including both combustion and nuclear power plants; and simple combustion of a fossil fuel or biomass; geothermal heat; solar heat; industrial heat pumps which extract heat from seawater, river or lake water, sewage, or waste heat from industrial processes.

The core element of many district heating systems is a heat-only boiler station. Cogeneration plant (also called combined heat and power, CHP) is often added in parallel with the boilers. Both have in common that they are typically based on burning of primary energy carriers. The difference between the two systems is that, in a cogeneration plant, heat and electricity are generated simultaneously, and only in the heat of the boiler. In the case of a fossil fueled cogeneration plant, the heat output is typically measured to 90% of the heat supplied. The boiler will be able to meet the demand for a breakdown in the cogeneration plant. It is not economical to size the plant alone to be able to meet the full heat load. In the New York City steam system, that is around 2.5 GW. Germany has the largest amount of CHP in Europe. The combination of cogeneration and district heating is very energy efficient. A simple thermal power station can be 20-35% efficient, with a greater ability to reach total energy efficiency of nearly 80%. Some may exceed 100% based on the lower heating value by condensing the flue gas as well. Is used for district heating. The principles for a conventional combination of heating and district heating are the same as those for a thermal power station. Russia has several cogeneration nuclear plants which together provided 11. 4 PJ of district heat in 2005. Russian nuclear district heating is planned to almost triple within a decade as new plants are built. Other nuclear-powered heating plants in Ukraine, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Switzerland, producing up to about 100 MW per power station. Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden closed in 1974. In Switzerland, the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant provides heat to about 20,000 people.

History Geothermal District Heating was used in Pompeii, and in Chaudes-Aigues since the 14th Century. United States Direct use geothermal district heating systems, which tap geothermal reservoirs and distribute the hot water to multiple buildings for a variety of uses, are uncommon in the United States, but have existed in America for over a century. In 1890, the first wells were drilled to a hot water resource outside of Boise, Idaho. In 1892, the first geothermal district heating system was created. As of a 2007 study, there were 22 geothermal district heating systems (GDHS) in the United States. As of 2010, two of those systems have shut down. The table below describes the 20 GDHS currently operational in America.

Use of solar heat for increasing heating in Denmark and Germany in recent years. The systems usually include interseasonal thermal energy storage for a heat output day to day and between summer and winter. Good examples are in Vojens at 50 MW, Dronninglund at 27 MW and Marstal at 13 MW in Denmark. These systems have been incrementally expanded to provide 10% to 40% of their villages’ annual space heating needs. The solar-thermal panels are ground-mounted in fields. The heat storage is pit storage, borehole cluster and the traditional water tank. In Alberta, Canada the Drake Landing Solar Community has achieved a world record of solar energy.

In Stockholm, the first heat pump was installed in 1977 to deliver district heating sourced from IBM servers. Water heat, utilizing treated water, sea water, cooling district, data centers and grocery stores as heat sources. Another example is the Drammen Fjernvarme District Heating project in Norway which produces 14 MW from water at just 8 ° C, industrial heat pumps are demonstrated heat sources for district heating networks. Among the ways that industrial heat pumps can be used, however, are the recent advances in the use of natural heat pumps (GWP). CO2 refrigerant (R744, GWP = 1) or ammonia (R717, GWP = 0) also have the benefit, depending on operating conditions, of resulting in a higher heat pump efficiency than Refrigerants. An example is a 14 MW (thermal) district heating network in Drammen, Norway which is supplied by seawater-source heatpumps that uses R717 refrigerant, and has been operating since 2011. 90 ° C is delivered to the district loop (and returns at 65 ° C). Is given from seawater (from depth) that is 8 to 9 ° C all year round, giving an average coefficient of performance (COP) of about 3.15. In the process the seawater is chilled to 4 ° C; however, this resource is not used. In a district system, the effective COP would be much higher. In the future, industrial heat pumps will be further de-carbonised by using, on one side, excess renewable electrical energy (wind energy demand) from wind, solar, etc. and, on the other side, by making more of renewable heat sources (lake and ocean heat, geothermal, etc.). Furthermore, higher efficiency can be expected through operation on the high voltage network.

With European countries such as Germany and Denmark moving to very high levels (80% and 100% respectively by 2050) of renewable energy. Storage of this energy as electrical potential energy (eg pumped hydro) is very costly and reduces total round-trip efficiency. However, storing it in the district heating systems, where it is required, is significantly less costly. Whilst the quality of the electrical energy is degraded, the high voltage grid would be maximized. Stockholm at present has about 660 MW of heat pumps connected to its district heating system.

Increasingly large heat stores are being used with district heating networks to maximize efficiency and financial returns. This allows for greater production of heat, while the production of heat is much higher. It also allows for a wide range of low-cost in-ground insulated reservoirs or borehole systems. The expected heat loss at the 203,000m³ insulated pond in Vojens is about 8%.

After generation, the heat is distributed to the customer via a network of insulated pipes. District heating systems consist of feed and return lines. Usually the pipes are installed underground but there are also systems with overground pipes. Within the system heat storage units can be installed to even out peak load demands. The common medium used for heat distribution is water or hot water, but steam is also used. The advantage of steam is that it can be used in other processes. The disadvantage of steam is a higher heat loss due to the high temperature. Also, the thermal efficiency of cogeneration plants is significantly lower than the high-temperature cooling medium, reducing electric power generation. Heat transfer oils are generally used for heating, they have higher heat capacities than water, they are expensive and have environmental issues. Heat exchangers: the working fluids of both networks (water or steam) do not mix. However, direct connection is used in the Odense system. Typical annual loss of thermal energy through distribution is around 10%, seen in Norway’s district heating network. the working fluids of both networks (water or steam) do not mix. However, direct connection is used in the Odense system. Typical annual loss of thermal energy through distribution is around 10%, seen in Norway’s district heating network. the working fluids of both networks (water or steam) do not mix. However, direct connection is used in the Odense system. Typical annual loss of thermal energy through distribution is around 10%, seen in Norway’s district heating network.

The amount of heat provided to customers is often limited to a certain amount of energy. Due to the expense of heat metering, an alternative approach is simply one of the following: which increases the efficiency of power generation. Many systems were installed under a socialist economy (such as in the Eastern Bloc), and these were often not metered. This led to great inefficiencies – users simply opened up windows when too hot – wasting energy and minimizing the numbers of connectable customers.

District heating systems can vary in size. Flensburg, or some other systems, may be used in the same way as in the case of a flume. houses. Some district heating schemes may be small enough to meet the needs of a small village or a small town. Some schemes may be designed to serve a limited number of dwellings – 20-50 – in which case only tertiary sized pipes are needed.

District heating has various advantages compared to individual heating systems. Usually district heating is more efficient energy, due to simultaneous production of heat and electricity in combined heat and power generation plants. This has the added benefit of reducing carbon emissions. The larger combustion units also have a more advanced flue gas cleaning than single boiler systems. In the case of surplus heat from industries, the district heating systems do not require additional fuel because they recover heat which would otherwise be dispersed to the environment. District heating requires a long-term financial commitment that fits poorly with a focus on short-term returns on investment. Benefits to the community include costs of energy and surplus energy and reduced investment in individual household or building heating equipment. District heating networks, heat-only boiler stations, and cogeneration plants require high initial capital expenditure and financing. Only if considered as profitable for the owners of district heating systems, or combined heat and power plant operators. District heating is less attractive for areas with low population densities. Also it is less attractive in areas of many small buildings; eg detached houses than in areas with a fewer larger buildings; eg, blocks of flats, because each connection is quite expensive. Individual heating systems can be completely shutdown intermittently with a district heating system. It is doubtful District Heating is delivering the savings promised by many heat suppliers. Some customers are taking legal action against the supplier for Misrepresentation & Unfair Trading. The problem is so widespread BBC TV, News & Radio, BBC TV, News & Radio, Guardian newspaper and consumer magazine. There is also growing concern over the use of oversized heat plates inside the HIU. Some customers use a 50 kW heat plate for the hot water and if they had a gas boiler at most would use 23 kW.

In many cases large combined heat and power district heating schemes are owned by a single entity. This was typically the case in the old Eastern bloc countries. However, for many schemes, the ownership of the cogeneration is separate from the heat using part. Examples which are owned by PGNiG Termika owning the cogeneration unit, the Dalkia Polska owning 85% of the heat distribution, the rest of the heat distribution is owned by municipality and workers. Similarly all the large CHP / CH schemes in Denmark are of split ownership. Sweden provides an alternative example where the heating market is deregulated. In Sweden it is most common that the ownership of the district heating network is not separated from the ownership of the cogeneration plants, the district cooling network or the centralized heat pumps. There are also examples where the competition has spawned parallel networks and interconnected networks where multiple utilities cooperate. In the United Kingdom, there is a lack of compliance with the rules and regulations of the United States. heat trust.

Since every single district heating system is unique. In addition, nations have different access to primary energy carriers and they have a different approach to their respective markets.

Since 1954, district heating has been promoted in Europe by Euroheat & Power. They have compiled an analysis of district heating and cooling markets in Europe under their Ecoheatcool project supported by the European Commission. A separate study, entitled Heat Roadmap Europe, has been published in the European Union between now and 2050. The legal framework in the member states of the European Union is currently influenced by the EU’s CHP Directive.

The EU has actively incorporated cogeneration into its energy policy via the CHP Directive. In September 2008 at a hearing of the European Parliament’s Urban Intergroup Lodgment, Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs is quoted as saying, “security of supply really starts with energy efficiency.” Energy efficiency and cogeneration are recognized in the opening paragraphs of the European Union’s Cogeneration Directive 2004/08 / EC. This directive is intended to support cogeneration and establish a method for calculating cogeneration abilities per country. The development of cogeneration has been very prevalent over the years and has been dominated by national circumstances. As a whole, the European Union by 11% of its electricity using cogeneration, saving Europe an estimated 35 Mtoe per annum. However, there are wide differences between member states, with energy savings ranging from 2% to 60%. Europe has the three countries with the world’s most intensive cogeneration economies: Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland. Other European countries are also making great efforts to increase their efficiency. Germany reports that over 50% of the country’s total electricity demand could be provided through cogeneration. Germany, August 2007. The UK is also a set of targets for its electricity generation by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, (BMWi), Germany, August 2007. The UK is also active supporting district heating. In the light of UK’s goal to achieve an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, Other measures to promote CHP growth are financial incentives, grant support, a greater regulatory framework, and government leadership and partnership. According to the IEA 2008 modeling of cogeneration expansion for the G8 countries, expansion of cogeneration in France, Germany, Italy and the UK alone would effectively double the existing primary fuel savings by 2030. This would increase Europe’s savings from today’s 155 TWh to 465 TWh in 2030. It would also result in a total increase of 20% in total costs of electricity by 2030. Governments are being assisted in their CHP endeavors by organizations like COGEN Europe energy policy. COGEN is Europe’s umbrella organization representing the interests of the cogeneration industry, users of technology and promoting its benefits in the EU and the wider Europe. The ESCOs, equipment suppliers, consultancies, national promotion organizations, financial and other service companies. A 2016 EU energy strategy suggests increased use of district heating. financial and other service companies. A 2016 EU energy strategy suggests increased use of district heating. financial and other service companies. A 2016 EU energy strategy suggests increased use of district heating.

The largest district heating system in Austria is in Vienna (Fernwärme Wien) – with many smaller systems distributed over the whole country. District heating in Vienna is run by Wien Energy. In the business year of 2004/2005 a total of 5.163 GWh was sold, 1.602 GWh to 251.224 private apartments and houses and 3.561 GWh to 5211 major customers. The GWh electric power and 1.220 GWh heat. Waste heat from municipal power plants and large industrial plants account for 72% of the total. The remaining 6% is produced by fossil fuel. A biomass-fired power plant has been produced since 2006. In the rest of Austria the newer district heating plants are constructed as biomass plants or as CHP-biomass plants like the gold.

Bulgaria has district heating in dozen towns and cities. The largest system is in the capital Sofia, where there are two power stations (two CHPs and two boiler stations) providing heat to the majority of the city. The system dates back to 1949.

The largest district heating system in the Czech Republic is operated by Pražská teplárenská, serving 265,000 households and selling c. 13 PJ of heat annually. Most of the heat is actually produced in 30 km distant thermal power station in Mělník. There are many smaller central heating systems, including municipal waste incineration and heat plants.

In Denmark district heating covers more than 60% of space heating and water heating. In 2007, 80.5% of this heat was produced by combined heat and power plants. Total heat recovered from waste incineration accounted for 20.4% of the total. In 2013, Denmark imported 158,000 tons of waste for incineration. Most major cities in Denmark have large district heating networks, operating at up to 125 ° C and 25 bar operating pressure and up to 95 ° C and between 6 and 10 bar pressure. The largest district heating system in Denmark is in the Copenhagen area operated by CTR I / S and VEKS I / S. In central Copenhagen, the CTR network serves 275,000 households (90-95% of the area) s population of 54 km double district district heating distribution pipes providing a peak capacity of 663 MW. The consumer price of heat from CTR is approximately $ 49 per MWh plus taxes (2009). The Danish island of Samsø has three straw-fueled plants producing district heating.

In Finland district heating accounts for about 50% of the total heating market, 80% of which is produced by combined heat and power plants. Over 90% of apartment blocks, more than half of all terraced houses, and the bulk of public buildings and business premises connected to a district heating network. Natural gas is generally used in the south-east of the pipeline, and is used in areas close to ports, and is used in natural areas. Other renewables, such as wood chips and other paper fuel by-products, are also used, as is the energy recovered by the incineration of municipal solid waste. Production of an industrial product by a product may be more expensive Excess heat and power from pulp mill recovery boilers is a significant source in mill towns. In some towns waste incineration can contribute to a greater degree of energy efficiency. Availability is 99.98% and disruptions, when they do occur, usually have low temperatures. In Helsinki, an underground datacenter next to the President’s palace.

In Germany district heating has a market share of 14% in the residential buildings sector. The connected heat load is around 52,729 MW. The heat comes mainly from cogeneration plants (83%). Heat-only boilers supply 16% and 1% is surplus heat from industry. The cogeneration plants use natural gas (42%), coal (39%), lignite (12%) and waste / others (7%) as fuel. The largest district heating network is located in Berlin, with the highest circulation of district heating in Flensburg with around 90% market share. In Munich about 70% of the electricity produced comes from district heating plants. District heating has rather little legal framework in Germany. There is no law on it. There is no governmental support for district heating networks but a law to support cogeneration plants. As in the European Union the CHP Directive will be effective, this law probably needs some adjustment.

Province of Western Macedonia, Central Macedonia and the Peloponnese Province. The largest system is the city of Ptolemaida, where there are five power plants providing thermal power to the majority of the largest towns and cities. The first small installation took place in Ptolemaida in 1960, offering heating to the village of Eordaea using the TPS of Ptolemaida. Today District heating facilities are also available in Kozani, Ptolemaida, Amyntaio, Philotas, Serres and Megalopolis using nearby power plants. In Serres the power plant is a Hi-Efficiency CHP Plant using natural gas, while coal is the primary fuel for all other district heating networks.

According to the 2011 census there were 607,578 dwellings (15.5% of all) in Hungary with district heating, mostly flats in urban areas. The largest district heating system located in Budapest, the municipality-owned Főtáv Zrt. (“Metropolitan Teleheating Company”) provides 238,000 households and 7,000 companies.

With 95% of all housing (mostly in the capital of Reykjavík) enjoying district heating services – mainly from geothermal energy, Iceland is the country with the highest penetration of district heating. Most of Iceland’s district heating comes from three geothermal power plants, producing over 800 MWth:

The Dublin Waste-to-Energy Plant will provide district heating for up to 50,000 homes in Poolbeg and surrounding areas. Tralee in Co Kerry has a district heating system providing heat to an apartment complex, sheltered housing for the elderly, a library and over 100 individual houses. The system is fuelled by local wood chips. In Glenstal Abbey in Co Limerick there is a pond-based 150 kW heating system for a school.

In Italy, district heating is used in some cities (Bergamo, Brescia, Cremona, Bolzano, Ferrara, Imola, Reggio Emilia, Terlan, Turin, Lodi, and now Milan). The district heating of Turin is the largest of the country and it supplies 550,000 people (62% of the total city population).

Cityheating in Rotterdam.

In Norway district heating only constitutes approximately 2% of energy needs for heating. This is a very low number compared to similar countries. One of the main reasons district heating has a low penetration in Norway is access to cheap hydro-based electricity, and 80% of private electricity consumption goes to heat rooms and water. However, there is a district heating in the major cities.

In 2009, 40% of Polish households used district heating, most of them in urban areas. Heat is provided mainly by combined heat and power plants, most of which burn hard coal. The largest district heating system is in Warsaw, owned and operated by Veolia Warszawa, distributing approx. 34 PJ annually.

The largest district heating system in Romania is in Bucharest. Owned and operated by RADET, it distributes approximately 24 PJ annually, serving 570,000 households. This corresponds to 68% of Bucharest’s total domestic heat requirements (RADET fulfills another 4% through single-boiler systems, for a total of 72%).

In most Russian cities, district-level combined heat and power plants () produce more than 50% of the nation’s electricity supply. They mostly use coal and oil-powered steam turbines for cogeneration of heat. Now, gas turbines and combined cycle designs are beginning to be widely used as well. A Soviet-era approach of using large-scale stations to heat large areas of the world is not far away even when notwithstanding the inefficiency of the old networks, where much is lost in the pipeline because of leakages and lack of proper thermal insulation.

In Serbia, district heating is used in the main cities, particularly in the capital, Belgrade. The first district heating was built in 1961 as a means to provide effective heating to the newly built suburbs of Novi Beograd. Since then, numerous plants have been built to heat the ever-growing city. They use natural gas as fuel, because it has less effect on the environment. The district heating system of Belgrade possesses 112 heat sources of 2,454 MW capacity, over 500 km of pipeline, and 4365 connection stations, providing district heating to 240,000 apartments and 7,500 office / commercial buildings of total floor area exceeding 17,000,000 square meters.

Sweden has a long tradition for using teleheating in urban areas. In 2015, about 60% of Sweden’s houses (private and commercial) were heated by district heating, according to the Swedish Association of District Heating. The city of Växjö reduced its fossil fuel consumption by 30% between 1993 and 2006, and is targeted at a 50% reduction. Another example is the plant of Enköping, combining the rotation of plantations with both for fuel and for phytoremediation. 47% of the heat generated in Swedish teleheating systems are produced with renewable bioenergy sources, as well as 16% in waste-to-energy plants, 7% is provided by heat pumps, 10% by flue-gas condensation and 6% by industrial waste heat recovery. The fossil fuels: oil (3%), natural gas (3%), peat (2%), and coal (1%). Because of the law banning traditional landfills, waste is commonly used as a fuel.

In the United Kingdom, the district heating became popular after World War II, but it was limited to a large residential area that was devastated by the Blitz. In 2013 there were 1,765 district heating schemes with 920 based in London alone. In total around 210,000 homes and 1,700 businesses are supplied by heat networks in the UK. The Pimlico District Heating Undertaking (PDHU) first became operational in 1950 and continued to expand. The PDHU once again relies on Battersea Power Station on the South side of the River Thames. It is still in operation, which is 3.1 MWe / 4.0 MWth of gas fired CHP engines and 3 × 8 MW gas-fired boilers. One of the United Kingdom ‘ The largest district heating schemes is EnviroEnergy in Nottingham. The building is now used by 4,600 homes, including the Concert Hall, the Nottingham Arena, the Victoria Baths, the Broadmarsh Shopping Center, the Victoria Center, and others. The heat source is a waste-to-energy incinerator. Scotland has several district heating systems with the first in the UK being established at Aviemore and others following at Lochgilphead, Fort William and Forfar. Sheffield’s district heating network was established in 1988 and is still expanding today. It saves an equivalent of 21,000 plus tonnes of CO2 each year when compared to conventional sources of energy – electricity from the national grid and heat generated by individual boilers. There are currently 140 buildings connected to the district heating network. These include the Sheffield City Hall, the Sheffield University, Sheffield Hall, University, hospitals, hospitals, hospitals, hospitals and more than 2,800 homes. More than 44 km of underground pipes deliver energy which is generated at Sheffield Energy Recovery Facility. This converts 225,000 tonnes of waste into energy, producing up to 60 MWe of thermal energy and up to 19 MWe of electrical energy. The Southampton District Energy Scheme was originally built to use just geothermal energy, but also uses the heat from a gas fired CHP generator. West Quayside Shopping Center, The Royal South Hants Hospital, The De Vere Grand Harbor Hotel, The Royal South Hants Hospital, and several housing schemes. Lerwick District Heating Scheme is one of a number of places where you can get started. ADE has an online map of district heating installations in the UK. ADE estimates that 54 percent of energy used to produce electricity is being wasted via conventional power generation, which relates to £ 9.5 billion ($ US12.5 billion) per year.

The largest district heating system in Spain is located in Soria. It is called “Ciudad del Medio Ambiente” (Environmental Town) and will receive 41 MW from a biomass power plant.

In North America, district heating systems fall into two general categories. Those that are owned by and serve the buildings of a single entity are considered institutional systems. All others fall into the commercial category.

District Heating is becoming a growing industry in Canadian cities, with many new systems being built in the last ten years. Some of the major systems in Canada include:

The Holly Steam Combination Company was the first steam heating company to commercially distribute district heating from a central steam heating system. * Consolidated Edison of New York (Con Ed) operates the New York City steam system, the largest commercial district heating system in the United States. The system has been continuously changing since March 3, 1882 and serves Manhattan Island from the Battery through 96th Street. In addition to providing space-and-water-heating, steam is used in many restaurants for food preparation, for the process of heat and dry cleaners, and to power absorption chillers for air conditioning. The city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, has been using district heating for its central business district since the beginning of operations in 1968. Amazingly, César Chavez Drive, qualified as the best in Southeastern Wisconsin, at least with regard to ozone concentration. The recent (2012) conversion of the plant, which changed the fuel input from coal to natural gas, is expected to further improve the quality of both local and local César Chavez sensors Antarctic sensors. Interesting to note about Wisconsin power plants are using their breeding grounds for peregrines. North Dakota State University (NDSU) in Fargo, North Dakota has used the district heating for a coal-fired heating plant. The recent (2012) conversion of the plant, which changed the fuel input from coal to natural gas, is expected to further improve the quality of both local and local César Chavez sensors Antarctic sensors. Interesting to note about Wisconsin power plants are using their breeding grounds for peregrines. North Dakota State University (NDSU) in Fargo, North Dakota has used the district heating for a coal-fired heating plant. The recent (2012) conversion of the plant, which changed the fuel input from coal to natural gas, is expected to further improve the quality of both local and local César Chavez sensors Antarctic sensors. Interesting to note about Wisconsin power plants are using their breeding grounds for peregrines. North Dakota State University (NDSU) in Fargo, North Dakota has used the district heating for a coal-fired heating plant.


87 district heating enterprises are operating in Japan, serving 148 districts. Many companies operate in the district of the city. Also, most of the Tokyo District Servers.

In southern China, there are almost no district heating systems. In northern China, district heating systems are common. Most district heating system which is just for heating instead of CHP use hard coal. For air pollution in China. There is also some amount of geothermal heating and sea heat pump systems.

District heating traces its roots to the hot water-heated baths and greenhouses of the Roman Empire. District Systems Promoted to Prominence in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, with one system in France in continuous operation since the 14th century. The US Naval Academy in Annapolis began steam district heating service in 1853. Although it was the first commercially successful district heating system was launched in Lockport, New York, in 1877 by American hydraulic engineer Birdsill Holly, considered the founder of modern district heating. Paris has been using geothermal heating from a 55-70 ° C source 1-2 km below the surface since the 1970s for domestic heating. In the 1980s Southampton began using combined heat and power district heating, taking advantage of geothermal heat “trapped” in the area. The geothermal heat provided by the Combined Heat and Power scheme. Geothermal energy provides 15-20%, fuel oil 10%, and natural gas 70% of the total heat input for this scheme and the combined heat and power generators. “Waste heat” from this process is recovered for distribution through the 11 km hands network.

Penetration of district heating (DH) in the heat market by country. Penetration is influenced by different factors, including environmental conditions, availability of heat sources, economics, and economic and legal frameworks. In the year 2000 the percentage of houses in the United States is determined by the following factors: In most Eastern European countries, energy planning and development of cogeneration and district heating. Negative influence in the Netherlands and UK can be attributed to the climate. The tax on domestic gas prices in the UK is a third of that in France and a fifth of that in Germany.