Energy management includes planning and operation of energy production and energy consumption units. Objectives are resource conservation, climate protection and cost savings, while the users have access to the energy they need. It is connected closely to environmental management, production management, logistics and other established business functions. The VDI-Guideline 4602 released on the definition of the economic dimension: “Energy management is the proactive, organized and systematic coordination of procurement, conversion, distribution and use of energy to meet the requirements, taking into account environmental and economic objectives”.
One of initial steps for an effective energy cost assessment program, which examines the pattern of existing energy use by the government or any sub-entity of the government or private organization. This program will set the benchmark for improvements in energy efficiency. Energy efficiency can improve the existing energy use and benchmarking of every individual section such as area, sub-area and industry.
It is important to integrate the energy management in the organizational structure, so that the energy management can be implemented. Responsibilities and the interaction of decision makers should be regularized. The delegation of functions and competencies extend from the top management to the executive worker. Furthermore, a comprehensive can fulfill the fulfillment of the tasks. It is advisable to establish a separate organizational unit “energy management” in large or energy-intensive companies. This unit supports the senior management and keeps track. It depends on the basic form of the organizational structure, where this unit is connected. In the case of a functional organization is located directly between the first (CEO) and the second hierarchical level (corporate functions such as production, procurement, marketing). In a divisional organization, there should be a central and several sector-specific energy management units. So the various needs of the individual sectors and the coordination between the branches and the head office can be fulfilled. In a matrix organization the energy management can be included in a matrix functions and functions most functions directly.
Facility management is an important part of energy management, because of a huge proportion (average 25 per cent) of complete operating costs. According to the International Facility Management Association (IFMA), facility management is “a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, processes and technology.” The central task of energy management is to reduce costs for the supply of energy in buildings and facilities without compromising work processes. Especially the availability and service life of the equipment and the ease of use should remain the same. The German Facility Management Association (GEFMA eV) has published guidelines (eg GEFMA 124-1 and 124-2), which contain methods and ways of dealing with the integration of energy management in the context of a successful facility management. In this topic the facility manager has to deal with economic, ecological, risk-based and quality-based targets. He tries to minimize the total cost of the energy-related processes (supply, distribution and use). The most important key figure in this context is kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh / m²a). These properties can be classified according to their energy consumption. There are also buildings that produce more energy (for example by solar water heating or photovoltaic systems). These buildings are called energy-plus-houses. In addition, the work regulations manage competencies, roles and responsibilities. Because the systems also include risk factors (eg, oil tanks, gas lines), you must make sure that you are clearly described and distributed. A clear regulation can help to avoid liability risks.
Logistics is the management of the flow of resources, and for the purposes of customers or corporations. Especially the core logistics task, transport of the goods, can save costs and protect the environment through efficient energy management. The relevant factors are the choice of means of transportation, the duration and the length of the transport and the cooperation with the logistics service providers. The logistics causes more than 14% percent of CO2 emissions worldwide. For this reason Green Logistics is becoming increasingly important. Possible courses of action in terms of green logistics are:
Procurement is the acquisition of goods or services. Energy prices fluctuate constantly, which can significantly affect the energy bill of organizations. Therefore poor energy procurement decisions can be expensive. Organizations can control and reduce energy costs by taking a proactive and efficient approach to buying energy. Even a change of the source energy can be a profitable and eco-friendly alternative.
Production is the act of creating output, a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals. This central process may differ depending on the industry. Industrial companies have facilities that require a lot of energy. Service companies, in turn, do not need many materials, their energy-related focus is mainly green IT. Therefore the energy-related focus has been identified first, then evaluated and optimized.
Usually, production is the area with the largest energy consumption within an organization. Therefore also the production planning and control becomes very important. It deals with the operational, temporal, quantitative and spatial planning, control and management of all processes that are necessary in the production of goods and commodities. The “production planner” should plan the production processes so that they operate in an efficient energy way. For example, strong power consumer can be moved into the night time. Peaks should be avoided for the benefit of a unified load profile. The requirements of the structure of energy production require an increasing demand for storage capacity. The production planning and control has to deal with the problem of limited storability of energy. In principle there is the possibility to store energy electrically, mechanically or chemically. Another trend-setting technology is lithium-based electrochemical storage, which can be used in electric vehicles or as an option to control the power grid. The German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology has established an initiative with the aim of introducing new energy storage.
Is a combination of all technical and administrative actions, including supervision actions, intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform a required function. Detailed maintenance is essential to support the energy management. Hereby power losses and cost increases can be avoided.
Through the energy efficiency and management of the energy efficiency of the energy management system and the management of the energy management and costs with the help of maintenance:
A long-term energy strategy should be part of the overall strategy of a company. This strategy may include the objective of increasing the use of renewable energies. Furthermore, criteria for decisions on energy investments, such as yield expectations, are determined. By formulating an energy strategy companies have the opportunity to avoid risks and to ensure a competitive advance against their business rivals.
According to Kals there are the following energy strategies:
Many companies are trying to promote their image and protect the climate through a proactive and public energy strategy. General Motors (GM) strategy is based on continuous improvement. They have six principles: environmental protection, conservation of the environment and the environment. Nokia created its first climate strategy in 2006. The strategy tries to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of products and operations. Furthermore, their environmental efforts are based on four key issues: substance management, energy efficiency, recycling, promoting environmental sustainability. The energy strategy of Volkswagen (VW) is based on environmentally friendly products and a resource-efficient production according to the “Group Strategy 2018”. Almost all locations of the Group are certified to the international ISO 14001 standard for environmental management systems. Greenwashing in mind. This is a form of propaganda in which green strategies are used to promote the opinion that an organization is environmentally friendly. Greenwashing in mind. This is a form of propaganda in which green strategies are used to promote the opinion that an organization is environmentally friendly. Greenwashing in mind. This is a form of propaganda in which green strategies are used to promote the opinion that an organization is environmentally friendly.
Even many countries formulate energy strategies. The Swiss Federal Council decided in May 2011 to resign nuclear energy medium-dated. The nuclear power plants will be shut down at the end of life and will be replaced. In Compensation they can focus on energy efficiency, renewable energies, fossil energy sources and the development of water power. The European Union has clear instructions for its members. The “20-20-20-targets” include, that the Member States have to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels, increase energy efficiency by 20% and achieve 20% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption by 2020 .
The basis of every energy strategy is the corporate culture and the related ethical standards applying in the company. Ethics, in the sense of business ethics, ethical issues and moral or ethical issues that arise in a business environment. Ethical standards can appear in company guidelines, energy and environmental policies or other documents. The most relevant ethical ideas for energy management are: