Energy storage is the catch of energy produced at one time for use at a later time. A device that stores energy is sometimes called an accumulator or battery. Energy in various forms including radiation, chemical, gravitational potential, electrical potential, electricity, elevated temperature, latent heat and kinetic. Energy storage involves the conversion of forms that are difficult to achieve. Bulk energy storage is currently dominated by hydroelectric dams, and conventional as well as pumped. Some technologies provide short-term energy storage, while others can endure for much longer. A wind-up clock stores potential energy (in this mechanical box, in the spring voltage), a rechargeable battery and a hydroelectric dam stores energy in a reservoir as gravitational potential energy. Fossil fuels such as coal and gasoline store ancient energy derived from sunlight by organisms that later died, were buried in these fuels. Food (which is made by the same process as fossil fuels) is a form of energy stored in chemical form. Ice storage tanks frozen ice cream by night. The energy is not stored directly, but the work-product of consuming energy (pumping away heat) is stored, having the equivalent effect on daytime consumption. These were the fuels. Food (which is made by the same process as fossil fuels) is a form of energy stored in chemical form. Ice storage tanks frozen ice cream by night. The energy is not stored directly, but the work-product of consuming energy (pumping away heat) is stored, having the equivalent effect on daytime consumption. These were the fuels. Food (which is made by the same process as fossil fuels) is a form of energy stored in chemical form. Ice storage tanks frozen ice cream by night. The energy is not stored directly, but the work-product of consuming energy (pumping away heat) is stored, having the equivalent effect on daytime consumption.
The energy present at the initial formation of the universe is stored in the sun, and is used by humans directly or by solar heating or sun tanning, or by growing crops, burning photosynthesized plants or conversion into electricity in solar cells. As a purposeful human activity, energy storage has existed since pre-history, although it was often not as widely recognized as such. Examples are the storage of dried wood or another source for fire, or preserving edible food or seeds. Another example of mechanical energy storage is the use of logs or boulders in ancient forts – the energy stored in logs or boulders at the top of a fortified hill or wall was used to attack invaders who came within range.
In the twentieth century electric power grid was largely generated by burning fossil fuel. When less power was required, less fuel was burned. Concerns with air pollution, energy imports and global warming have spawned the growth of renewable energy such as solar and wind power. Wind power is uncontrolled and can be generated at a time when no additional power is needed. Solar power varies with cloud cover and is often available during daylight hours, while demand often peaks after sunset (see duck curve). Interest in storing power from these intermittent sources grows as the renewable energy industry begins to generate a larger fraction of overall energy consumption. Off grid is a niche market in the twentieth century, but in the first century it has expanded. Portable devices are in use all over the world. Solar panels are now a common sight in the rural settings worldwide. Access to electricity is now a question of economics, not location. Powering transportation without burning fuel, however, remains in development.
The following list includes a variety of types of energy storage:
Energy can be stored in a higher energy storage rate by gravity batteries. Other commercial mechanical methods include electric air compressors and electric motors.
Hydroelectric dams with reservoirs can be used to provide peak generation at times of peak demand. Water is stored in the reservoir during periods of low demand and released when demand is high. The net effect is similar to pumped storage, but without pumping loss. While a hydroelectric dam is not directly related to energy generation, it is also In this fashion, they are one of the most efficient forms of energy storage, because only the timing of its generation changes. Hydroelectric turbines have a start-up time on the order of a few minutes.
Worldwide, pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is the largest-capacity form of active grid energy storage, and, as of March 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports that PSH accounts for more than 99% of bulk storage capacity worldwide, representing around 127,000 MW. PSH reported energy efficiency varies between 70% and 80%, with claims of up to 87%. At times of low electrical demand, a higher generation capacity is used to supply a higher source of water. When demand grows, water is released to a lower reservoir (or waterway or body of water) through a turbine, generating electricity. Reversible turbine-generator assemblies act as both a pump and turbine (usually a Francis turbine design). Nearly all facilities use the height difference between two water bodies.
Compressed air energy storage (CAES) uses surplus energy to compress air for subsequent electricity generation. Small scale systems have been used in such applications as propulsion of mine locomotives. The compressed air is stored in an underground reservoir. Compression of air creates heat; the air is warmer after compression. Expansion requires heat. If no extra heat is added, the air will be much colder after expansion. The heat generated during compression can be stored and used during expansion, efficiency improves considerably. A CAES system can deal with the heat in three ways. Air storage can be adiabatic, diabatic, or isothermal gold. Another approach uses compressed air to power vehicles.
Flywheel energy storage (FES) works by accelerating a rotor (flywheel) to a very high speed, holding energy as rotational energy. When energy is extracted, the flywheel ‘s rotational speed declines as a result of conservation of energy; adding energy correspondingly in an increase in the speed of the flywheel. Most FES systems use electricity to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. FES systems have made high strength carbon-fiber composite rotors, suspended by magnetic bearings and spinning at speeds from 20,000 to over 50,000 rpm in a vacuum enclosure. Such flywheels can reach maximum speed (“load”) in a matter of minutes. The flywheel system is connected to a combination of electric motor / generator.
Changing the altitude of solid masses can store or release energy via an elevating system driven by an electric motor / generator. Companies such as Energy Cache and Advanced Energy Storage (ARES) are working on this. ARES uses rails to move concrete weights up and down. Stratosolar proposes to use winches supported by buoyant platforms at an altitude of 20 kilometers, to raise and lower solid masses. Sink Float Solutions offers a range of 4,000 feet (13,000 ft) elevation difference between the surface and the seabed. ARES estimated hydroelectric capacity, Stratosolar $ 100 / kWh and Sink Float Solutions $ 25 / kWh (4000 m depth) and $ 50 / kWh (with 2000 m depth). Potential energy storage or gravity energy storage was under active development in 2013 in association with the California Independent System Operator. It examined the movement of earth-filled hopper rail cars driven by electric locomotives) from lower to higher elevations. ARES claims advantages, including the use of energy and water resources.
Thermal storage is the temporary storage or removal of heat. TES is practical because of the heat of melting of one metric ton of ice (about one cubic meter in size) can capture of thermal energy. An example is Alberta, Canada’s Drake Landing Solar Community, for which 97% of the year-round heat is provided by solar-thermal collectors on the garage roofs, with a borehole thermal energy store (BTES) being the enabling technology. STES projects often have paybacks in the four-to-six year range. In Braestrup, Denmark, the community’s solar district heating system also utilizes STES, at a storage temperature of 65 C. A heat pump, which is used only in the United States. for distribution. When surplus wind generated electricity is not available, a gas-fired boiler is used. Twenty percent of Braestrup’s heat is solar.
Latent heat heat energy storage systems with high latent heat (heat of fusion) capacity, known as phase change materials (PCMs). The main advantage of these materials is that their latent heat storage capacity is much more than sensible heat. In a specific temperature range, phase changes from solid to liquid absorbs a large amount of thermal energy for later use.
Rechargeable battery, including one or more electrochemical cells. It is known as ‘secondary cell’ because its electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come in many different shapes and sizes, ranging from cells cells to megawatt grid systems. Rechargeable batteries have lower total cost of use and environmental impact than non-rechargeable (disposable) batteries. Some rechargeable battery types are available in the same form factors as disposables. Rechargeable batteries have higher initial cost but can be recharged very cheaply and used many times. Common rechargeable battery chemistries include:
A flow battery by a solution over a membrane where ions are exchanged to charge / discharge the cell. Cell voltage is chemically determined by the Nernst equation and ranges, in practical applications, from 1.0 to 2.2. A flow battery is both a fuel cell and an electrochemical accumulator cell. Commercial applications are for long half-cycle storage such as backup grid power.
Supercapacitors, also called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) or ultracapacitors, are generic terms for a family of electrochemical capacitors that do not have solid electrics. Capacitance is determined by two storage principles, double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. Supercapacitors bridge the gap between the two capacitors and rechargeable batteries. They store the most energy per unit volume or mass (energy density) among capacitors. They support up to 10,000 farads, up to 10,000 times that of electrolytic capacitors, but deliver or accept less than half the power per unit time (power density). While supercapacitors have specific energy and energy densities that are approximately 10% of batteries, their power density is 10 to 100 times greater. This results in much shorter charge / discharge cycles. Additionally, they will tolerate many more charge and discharge cycles than batteries. Supercapacitors support a broad spectrum of applications, including:
The UltraBattery is a hybrid lead-acid cell and carbon-based ultracapacitor (gold supercapacitor) invented by Australia’s national research body, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The lead-acid cell and ultracapacitor share the sulfuric acid electrolyte and both are packaged in the same physical unit. The UltraBattery can be manufactured with the help of a conventional lead-acid battery making it possible to cost-effectively replace many lead-acid applications. The UltraBattery tolerates high load and discharge levels and large numbers of cycles, outperforming previous lead-acid cells by an order of magnitude. In hybrid-electric vehicle tests, millions of cycles have been achieved. The UltraBattery is also highly tolerant to the effects of sulfation compared with traditional lead-acid cells. This means it can be used at full load between discharges and discharges. UltraBattery achieves high efficiencies, typically between 85 and 95% DC-DC, and is highly electrically inefficient to a fully charged lead-acid battery. The UltraBattery can work across a wide range of applications. The constant cycling and fast charging and discharging necessary for such applications and the regulation of electric vehicles can damage the batteries, but are handled by the ultracapacitive qualities of UltraBattery technology.
Power to gas is a technology which converts electricity into a gaseous fuel such as hydrogen or methane. The three commercial methods use electricity to reduce water into hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolysis. In the first method, hydrogen is injected into the natural gas grid or is used in transport or industry. The second method is a combination of methane and methane, resulting in an additional energy conversion loss of 8%. The methane can be fed into the natural gas grid. The third method uses the output of a biogas plant, after the biogas upgrader is mixed with the hydrogen from the electrolyzer, to upgrade the quality of the biogas.
The hydrogen element can be a form of stored energy. Hydrogen can produce electricity via a hydrogen fuel cell. At penetrations below 20% of the grid demand, renewables do not severely change the economics; but beyond about 20% of the total demand, external storage becomes important. If these sources are used to make ionic hydrogen, they can be freely expanded. A 5-year community-based pilot program using wind turbines and hydrogen generators began in 2007 in the remote community of Ramea, Newfoundland and Labrador. A similar project began in 2004 on Utsira, a small Norwegian island. Electrolysis of water in the hydrogen storage cycle of electricity and the conversion of electricity to electricity. About 50 kW · h (180 MJ) of solar energy is required to produce a kilogram of hydrogen, so the cost of electricity is crucial. At $ 0.03 / kWh, a common off-peak high-voltage line in the United States, hydrogen costs $ 1.50 a kilogram for electricity, equivalent to $ 1.50 / gallon for gasoline. Other costs include the electrolyzer plant, hydrogen compressors or liquefaction, storage and transportation. Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in underground caverns, salt domes and depleted oil and gas fields. Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in underground caverns by Imperial Chemical Industries for many years without any difficulties. The European Hyunder project would require 85 caverns. hydrogen costs $ 1.50 a kilogram for electricity, equivalent to $ 1.50 / gallon for gasoline. Other costs include the electrolyzer plant, hydrogen compressors or liquefaction, storage and transportation. Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in underground caverns, salt domes and depleted oil and gas fields. Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in underground caverns by Imperial Chemical Industries for many years without any difficulties. The European Hyunder project would require 85 caverns. hydrogen costs $ 1.50 a kilogram for electricity, equivalent to $ 1.50 / gallon for gasoline. Other costs include the electrolyzer plant, hydrogen compressors or liquefaction, storage and transportation. Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in underground caverns, salt domes and depleted oil and gas fields. Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in underground caverns by Imperial Chemical Industries for many years without any difficulties. The European Hyunder project would require 85 caverns. Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in underground caverns, salt domes and depleted oil and gas fields. Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in underground caverns by Imperial Chemical Industries for many years without any difficulties. The European Hyunder project would require 85 caverns. Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in underground caverns, salt domes and depleted oil and gas fields. Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in underground caverns by Imperial Chemical Industries for many years without any difficulties. The European Hyunder project would require 85 caverns.
Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon with the molecular formula CH 4. Methane is more easily stored and transported than hydrogen. Storage and combustion infrastructure (pipelines, gasometers, power plants) are mature. Synthetic natural gas (syngas or SNG) can be created in a multi-step process, starting with hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is then reacted with carbon dioxide in a Sabatier process, producing methane and water. Methane can be stored and used to produce electricity. The resulting water is recycled, reducing the need for water. In the electrolysis stage oxygen is stored for methane combustion in a pure oxygen environment at an adjacent power plant, eliminating nitrogen oxides. Methane combustion produces carbon dioxide (CO 2) and water. The carbon dioxide can be recycled to boost the Sabatier process and water can be recycled for further electrolysis. Methane Production, Storage and Burning Recycles the reaction products. The CO 2 has an economic value as a component of an energy storage vector, not a cost in carbon capture and storage.
Power to liquid is similar to power to gas, but the production of methanol is not as large as methanol. Methanol is easier in handling than gases and requires less precautions than hydrogen. It can be used for transportation, including aircraft, but also for industrial purposes or in the power sector.
Various biofuels such as biodiesel, vegetable oil, alcohol fuels, or biomass can replace fossil fuels. Various chemical processes can be used to convert the carbon and hydrogen into natural gas, plant and animal biomass and organic hydrocarbons. Examples are diesel Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, dimethyl ether and syngas. This diesel fuel has been used extensively in World War II in Germany, which has limited access to crude oil supplies. South Africa makes the most of the country’s diesel for coal for similar reasons. A long term oil price above US $ 35 / bbl may make such a large scale synthetic liquid fuels economy.
Aluminum, Boron, silicon, lithium, and zinc have been proposed as energy storage solutions.
The organic compound norbornadiene converts to quadricyclane upon exposure to light, storing solar energy as the energy of chemical bonds. A working system has been developed in Sweden as a molecular solar thermal system.
A capacitor (a known passive condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy electrostatically. Practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors (plates) separated by a dielectric (ie, insulator). It can be used to store electricity when it recharges its charging circuit, so it can be used like a rechargeable battery, or like other types of rechargeable energy storage system. Capacitors are commonly used in electronic devices to maintain power while batteries change. Conventional capacitors provide less than 360 joules per kilogram, while the standard has a density of 590 kJ / kg. Capacitors store energy in an electrostatic field between their plates. Given a potential difference across the conductors, a positive charge (+ Q) to a positive charge (-Q) to a charge the other plate. If a battery is attached to a capacitor for a sufficient amount of time, no current can flow through the capacitor. However, if accelerating or alternating voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, a displacement current can flow. Besides capacitor plates, load can also be stored in a dielectric layer. Capacitance is greater given a narrower separation between conductors and when the conductors have a larger surface area. In practice, the dielectric between the plates emits a small amount of leakage and has an electric field strength limit, known as the breakdown voltage. However, the effect of a high-voltage breakdown of a high-voltage breakdown holds promise for a new generation of self-healing capacitors. The conductors and leads introduces undesired inductance and resistance. Research is assessing the quantum effects of nanoscale capacitors for digital quantum batteries.
Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is a new generation of superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. A typical SMES system includes a superconducting coil, a power conditioning system and a refrigerator. Once the superconducting coil is over, the current does not decay and the magnetic energy can be stored indefinitely. The stored energy can be released to the network by discharging the coil. The associated inverter / rectifier accounts for about 2-3% energy loss in each direction. SMES loses the least amount of electricity in the energy storage process compared to other methods of storing energy. SMES systems offer round-trip efficiency greater than 95%. Due to the energy requirements of refrigeration and the cost of superconducting wire, SMES is used for improving energy efficiency. It also has applications in grid balancing.
Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) allows heat or cold to be used by natural sources. The material can be stored in contained aquifers, clusters of boron stones in geological substrates such as sand or crystalline bedrock, in lined pits filled with gravel and water, or water-filled mines.
The classic application before the industrial revolution is the control of waterways to drive water mills for processing grain or powering machinery. Complex systems of reservoirs and dams were constructed and released when required.
Home energy storage is expected to become increasingly common given the importance of distributed generation of renewable energies (especially photovoltaics) and the important share of energy consumption in buildings. To reach a self-sufficiency of 40% in a household with photovoltaics, energy storage is needed. Multiple manufacturers produce rechargeable battery systems for storing energy. Today, for home energy storage, Li-ion batteries are preferable to lead-acid-based ones. Tesla Motors produces two models of the Tesla Powerwall. One is a 10 kWh weekly cycle version for backup applications and the other is a 7 kWh version for daily cycle applications. In 2016, Telsa Powerpack 2 cost $ 398 (US) / kWh to store electricity worth 12.5 cents / kWh (US average grid price), which is higher than 30 cents / kWh. Enphase Energy has been included and can be used by the user. The system stores 1.2 kWh hours of energy and 275W / 500W power output. Storing wind or solar energy is less flexible, but it is less expensive than batteries. A single 52-gallon electric water heater can store roughly 12 kWh of energy for supplementing hot water or space heating. For purely financial purposes in areas where you can use a grid-based, in-grid, grid-based inverter technology.
The largest source and the largest store of renewable energy is provided by hydroelectric dams. A large reservoir behind a dam can store enough water to average the annual flow of a river between dry and wet seasons. A very large reservoir can store enough water to average the flow of a river between dry and wet years. While a hydroelectric dam does not directly store energy from intermittent sources, it does balance the grid by lowering its output and retaining its water when power is generated by solar or wind. If wind or solar generation exceeds the hydroelectric capacity, then some additional source of energy will be needed. Many renewable energy sources (notably solar and wind) Storage systems can supply the supply and demand that this causes. Electricity must be used as it is generated or converted into storable forms. The main method of electrical storage grid is pumped-storage hydroelectricity. Areas of the world such as Norway, Wales, Japan and the US have used elevated geographic features for reservoirs, using electrically powered pumps to fill them. When needed, the water passes through generators and converts the gravitational potential of the falling water into electricity. Pumped storage in Norway, which gets almost all of its electricity from hydro, has an instantaneous capacity of 25-30 GW expandable to 60 GW-enough to be “Europe’s battery”. Some forms of storage that produce electricity include pumped-storage hydroelectric dams, rechargeable batteries, thermal storage including molten gases, and compressed air energy storage, flywheels, cryogenic systems and superconducting magnetic coils. Surplus power can also be converted into methane (sabatier process) with storage in the natural gas network. In 2011, the Bonneville Power Administration in Northwestern United States created an experimental program to absorb excess wind and hydro power generated at night or during stormy periods. Under central control, home appliances absorb surplus energy by heating ceramic bricks in special space heaters to hundreds of degrees and by boosting the temperature of modified hot water heaters. After charging, the appliances provide home heating and hot water as needed. The results of this study have been reduced to a higher than average level of energy. area running almost completely on renewable energy. Another advanced method used in the United States and Solar Power in the United States and the Solar Power in the United States uses electricity and energy. The system pumps molten salt through a tower or other special ducts to be heated by the sun. Insulated tanks store the solution. Electricity is produced by turning water to steam that is fed to turbines. Since the early 21st century batteries have been applied to utility scale load-leveling and frequency regulation capabilities. In vehicle-to-grid storage, electric vehicles are plugged into the energy grid can deliver stored electrical energy from their batteries into the grid when needed.
Chemical fossil fuels (gas, oil, coal) remain the dominant form of energy storage for electricity generation, within natural gas becoming increasingly important.
Thermal energy storage (TES) can be used for air conditioning. It is most widely used for cooling single large buildings and / or groups of smaller buildings. Commercial air conditioning systems are the biggest contributor to peak electrical loads. In 2009, thermal storage was used in over 3,300 buildings in over 35 countries. It works by creating ice at night and using the ice for cooling during the hotter daytime periods. The most popular technique is ice storage, which requires less space than water and is less expensive than fuel cells or flywheels. In this application, a standard chiller runs at night to produce an ice stack. Water then circulates through the battery during the day to chill water that would normally be the chiller’s daytime output. A partial storage system minimizes by 24 hours a day. At night, they produce ice cream and chill water. Water circulating through the melting ice augments the production of chilled water. Such a system makes for 16 to 18 hours a day and melts ice for six hours a day. Capital expenditures are reduced because the chillers can be just 40 – 50% of the size needed for a standard, no-storage design. Storage sufficient to store half a day’s heat is usually adequate. A full storage system shuts the chillers during peak load hours. Capital costs are higher, as such a system requires larger chillers and a larger ice storage system. This ice is produced when electrical utility rates are lower. Off-peak cooling systems can lower energy costs. The US Green Building Council has developed the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program to encourage the design of reduced-environmental impact buildings. Off-peak cooling may help towards LEED Certification. Thermal storage for heating is less than for cooling. An example of thermal storage is storing solar heat to be used for heating at night. Latent heat can also be stored in technical phase change materials (PCMs). These can be encapsulated in walls and ceiling panels, to moderate room temperatures. An example of thermal storage is storing solar heat to be used for heating at night. Latent heat can also be stored in technical phase change materials (PCMs). These can be encapsulated in walls and ceiling panels, to moderate room temperatures. An example of thermal storage is storing solar heat to be used for heating at night. Latent heat can also be stored in technical phase change materials (PCMs). These can be encapsulated in walls and ceiling panels, to moderate room temperatures.
Liquid hydrocarbon fuels are the most commonly used forms of energy storage, followed by a growing use of Battery Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Other energy sources such as hydrogen can be used to avoid producing greenhouse gases.
Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. They stabilize voltage and power flow.
The United States Department of Energy International Energy Storage Database (IESDB), is a free-access database of energy storage projects and policies funded by the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity and Sandia National Labs.
Storage capacity is the amount of energy extracted from a power plant energy storage system; measured in joules or kilowatt-hours and their multiples, it may be given in number of hours of electricity production at power plant nameplate capacity; when storage is of primary type (ie, thermal or pumped-water), output is sourced only with the power plant embedded storage system.
The economics of energy storage is highly dependent on the reserve service requested, and several uncertainties affect the profitability of energy storage. Therefore, not every Energy Storage is technically and economically suitable for the storage of several MWh, and the optimum size of the Energy Storage is market and location dependent. Moreover, ESS are affected by several risks, eg: 1) techno-economic risks, which are related to the specific technology; 2) Market risks, which are the factors that affect the electricity supply system; 3) Regulation and policy risks. Therefore, traditional techniques based on deterministic Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) for the investment appraisal are not fully adequate to assess these risks and uncertainties and the investor’s flexibility to deal with them. Hence, The Realization of Real Property Analysis (ROA), which is a valuable method in uncertain contexts. The economic valuation of large-scale applications includes: wind curtailment avoidance, grid congestion avoidance, price arbitrage and carbon free energy delivery. In a technical assessment by the Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, the economic goals could be achieved with a capital cost of $ 30 to $ 50 per kilowatt hour of storage capacity. A metric for calculating the energy efficiency of energy storage systems is Energy Storage On Energy Invested (ESOI) which is used in energy storage.
In 2013, the German Federal Government has allocated € 200M (approximately US $ 270M) for advanced research, providing a further € 50M to subsidize battery storage for residential solar panels, according to a representative of the German Energy Storage Association. Siemens AG commissioned a production-research plant to open in 2015 at the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff (ZSW, the German Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research in the State of Baden-Württemberg), a university / industry collaboration in Stuttgart, Ulm and Widderstall, staffed by approximately 350 scientists, researchers, engineers, and technicians. NPMM & P (NPMM & P) using a computerized Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.
In 2014, research and test centers opened to evaluate energy storage technologies. Among them was the Advanced Systems Test Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin at Madison in Wisconsin State, which partnered with Johnson Controls battery manufacturer. The laboratory was created as part of the university’s newly opened Wisconsin Energy Institute. Their goals include the evaluation of state-of-the-art and next generation electric vehicle batteries, including their use as grid supplements. The State of New York’s New York Battery and Energy Storage Technology (NY-BEST) Test and Commercialization Center at Eastman Business Park in Rochester, New York, has a cost of $ 23 million for its almost 1,700 sqm laboratory. The center includes the Center for Future Energy Systems, a collaboration between Cornell University of Ithaca, New York and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. NY-BEST tests, validates and independently certifies various forms of energy storage intended for commercial use. On September 27, 2017, Senators Al Franken of Minnesota and Martin Heinrich of New Mexico introduced Advancing Grid Storage Act (AGSA), which would be worth more than $ 1 trillion in research, technical assistance and grants to encourage energy storage in the United States.
In the United Kingdom, some universities and colleges in British Columbia in May 2014 to create the SUPERGEN Energy Storage Hub in order to assist in the coordination of energy storage technology research and development.
General * GA Mansoori, N Enayati, LB Agyarko (2016), Energy: Sources, Utilization, Legislation, Sustainability, Illinois as Model State, World Sci. Pub. Co.,