Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, which is a conversion of chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work. (EN) Fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process. In the context of transport, fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, given as a ratio of distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. It is dependent on engine efficiency, transmission design, and tire design. Fuel economy is expressed in miles per gallon (mpg) in the United States and also in the UK (imperial gallon); There is some confusion about the imperial gallon that is not comparable. In countries using the metric system fuel economy is reported as “fuel consumption” in liters per 100 kilometers (L / 100 km). Liters per mil are used in Norway and Sweden. Fuel consumption is a more accurate measure of a vehicle’s performance because it is a linear relationship while fuel economy leads to distortions in efficiency improvements. Weight-specific efficiency (efficiency per unit weight) can be stated for freight, and passenger-specific efficiency (vehicle efficiency per passenger). Liters per mil are used in Norway and Sweden. Fuel consumption is a more accurate measure of a vehicle’s performance because it is a linear relationship while fuel economy leads to distortions in efficiency improvements. Weight-specific efficiency (efficiency per unit weight) can be stated for freight, and passenger-specific efficiency (vehicle efficiency per passenger). Liters per mil are used in Norway and Sweden. Fuel consumption is a more accurate measure of a vehicle’s performance because it is a linear relationship while fuel economy leads to distortions in efficiency improvements. Weight-specific efficiency (efficiency per unit weight) can be stated for freight, and passenger-specific efficiency (vehicle efficiency per passenger).
Fuel efficiency is dependent on many parameters of a vehicle, including its engine parameters, aerodynamic drag, weight, and rolling resistance. There have been advances in all areas of vehicle design in recent decades. Hybrid vehicles use two or more power sources for propulsion. In many designs, a small combustion engine is combined with electric motors. Kinetic energy which would otherwise be lost to energy efficiency. Engines automatically shut down when vehicles come to a stop and start again when the accelerator is pressed preventing wasted energy from idling.
Fleet efficiency describes the average efficiency of a population of vehicles. Technological advances in efficiency can be offset by a change in buying habits with a propensity to heavier vehicles, which are less efficient, all else being equal.
British thermal units (BTU), megajoules (MJ), gigajoules (GJ), kilocalories (kcal), or kilowatt hours (kW · h). The inverse of “energy efficiency” is “energy intensity”, or the amount of input energy required for MJ / passenger-km (of passenger transport), BTU / ton-mile or kJ / t-km ( of freight transport), GJ / t (for production of steel and other materials), BTU / (kW · h) (for electricity generation), or liters / 100 km (of vehicle travel). Liter per 100 km is also a measure of “energy intensity” where the input is measured by the amount of fuel and the output is measured by the distance traveled. For example: Fuel economy in automobiles. Given a heat value of a fuel, it would be trivial to convert from fuel units (such as liters of gasoline) to energy units (such as MJ) and conversely. But there are two problems with comparisons made using energy units:
The specific energy content of a fuel is obtained when a quantity is burned (such as a gallon, liter, kilogram). It is sometimes called the heat of combustion. There exists two different values of specific heat energy for the same batch of fuel. One is the high (or gross) heat of combustion and the other is the low (or net) heat of combustion. The high value is obtained when, after combustion, the water in the exhaust is in liquid form. For the low value, the steam train. Water vapor gives rise to heat when it changes to liquid, the liquid water value is greater than that of the heat of vaporization of water. The difference between high and low values is significant, about 8 or 9%. This accounts for most of the apparent discrepancy in the heat value of gasoline. In the US (and the table) the high heat values have been commonly used, the low heat values are commonly used. <! This table originally contained MJ / L values that were too low compared to the BTU / gal figures, with reference to an Automotive Handbook. These data are not included in the Energy Energy Data Book, but do not give the MJ / kg or the densities.) Note: I am changing this table because of the values in US or US units. So I used another source, but it did not have MJ / kg, and I did not have the time to find accurate densities in order to convert to MJ / kg. If someone could fill in the blanks using good data, it would be useful .–> Neither the gross heat of combustion nor the net heat of combustion gives the theoretical amount of mechanical energy that can be obtained from the reaction. (This is given by the change in Gibbs free energy, and is around 45.7 MJ / kg for gasoline.) The actual amount of fuel oil required depends on the engine. A figure of 17.6 MJ / kg is possible with a gasoline engine, and 19.1 MJ / kg for a diesel engine. See Brake specific fuel consumption for more information. The actual amount of mechanical fuel obtained from fuel depends on the engine. A figure of 17.6 MJ / kg is possible with a gasoline engine, and 19.1 MJ / kg for a diesel engine. See Brake specific fuel consumption for more information. The actual amount of mechanical fuel obtained from fuel depends on the engine. A figure of 17.6 MJ / kg is possible with a gasoline engine, and 19.1 MJ / kg for a diesel engine. See Brake specific fuel consumption for more information.
The fuel efficiency of motor vehicles can be expressed in the following ways: The formula for converting to US gallon miles (exactly 3.785411784 L) from L / 100 km is. In parts of Europe, the two standard measuring cycles for “liter / 100 km” value are “urban” traffic with speeds up to 50 km / h from a cold start, and then “extra urban” to various speeds up to 120 km / h which follows the urban test. A combined figure is also quoted showing the total fuel consumed by the total distance traveled in both tests. A reasonably modern European, including station wagons, may be driving at 5 L / 100 km (47 US mpg / 56 mpg imp) or 6.5 L / 100 km in city traffic (36 mpg US / 43 mpg imp), with carbon dioxide emissions of around 140 g / km. An average North American mid-size car travels 21 mpg (US) (11 L / 100 km) city, 27 mpg (US) (9 L / 100 km) highway; A full-size SUV usually travels 13 mpg (US) (18 L / 100 km) city and 16 mpg (US) (15 L / 100 km) highway. Pickup trucks vary considerably; a 4 cylinder-engined light pickup can achieve 28 mpg (8 L / 100 km), a full-size V8 pickup with extended cabin only 13 mpg (US) (18 L / 100 km) city and 15 mpg (US) (15 L / 100 km) highway. The average fuel economy is higher in Europe due to the higher cost of fuel. In the UK, US $ 1.97, but with taxes cost US $ 6.06 in 2005. The average cost in the US was US $ 2.61. Consumers prefer “muscle cars” but choose more fuel efficient ones when gas prices increase. European-built cars are more fuel-efficient than US vehicles. While Europe has more efficient diesel engines, European gasoline vehicles are on average more efficient than gasoline-powered vehicles in the USA. Most European vehicles cited in the CSI study on diesel engines, which tend to be more fuel efficient than gas engines. Walter McManus, a fuel economy expert at the University of the Michigan Transportation Research Institute. “For the most part, European diesels do not meet US emission standards”, McManus said in 2007. Another reason why many European models are not marketed in the United States models regardless of fuel economy while laying off workers at home. An example of European cars Smart fortwo cdi, which can achieve up to 3.4 l / 100 km (69.2 US mpg) using a turbocharged three-cylinder 41 bhp (30 kW) diesel engine. The Fortwo is produced by Daimler AG and is currently only sold by the United States. Furthermore, the current world is in the Volkswagen world, with special production models (labeled “3L”) of the Volkswagen Lupo and the Audi A2, which as little as. Diesel engines generally achieve greater fuel efficiency than petrol (gasoline) engines. Passenger car diesel engines have energy efficiency of up to 41% but more typically 30%, and petrol engines of up to 37.3%, but more typically 20%. That is one of the reasons why diesel has better fuel efficiency than equivalent petrol cars. A common margin is 25% more miles per gallon for an efficient turbodiesel. For example, the current model Skoda Octavia, using Volkswagen engines, has a combined European fuel efficiency of 41.3 mpg for the petrol engine and 52.3 mpg for the – and heavier – diesel engine. The higher compression ratio is useful in raising the energy efficiency, but diesel fuel also accounts for 10% more energy per unit volume than gasoline which contributes to the reduced fuel consumption for a given power output. In 2002, the United States had 85,174,776 trucks, and averaged. Large trucks, over, averaged. The average economy of automobiles in the United States in 2002 was. By 2010 this had increased to. Average fuel economy in the United States, which was slightly increased until 1973, when it reached a higher level of fuel efficiency. A study indicates that it will increase to 2.04% increase in fuel economy. One method by which to increase the efficiency of the engine is to increase the weight of the engine.
How fuel is affected how much energy is produced. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has investigated fuel consumption in microgravity. The common distribution of a flame under normal gravity conditions depends on convection, because it is a flame of a flame, such as a candle, making the flame yellow. In microgravity or zero gravity, such as an environment in outer space, convection no longer occurs, and the flame becomes more common. There are several possible explanations for this difference, of which the most likely one is the hypothesis that the temperature is evenly distributed that is not formed and complete combustion occurs., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, April 2005. Experiments by NASA in microgravity reveal that diffusion flames in microgravity are more likely to be completely oxidized after they are produced than scattering flames on Earth, because of a series of mechanisms that are relatively different in microgravity when compared to normal gravity conditions. LSP-1 Experiment results, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, April 2005. The effects of microgravity on earthquakes, and more much longer.
Fuel efficiency directly affects emissions causing pollution by the amount of fuel used. However, it also depends on the fuel source used to drive the vehicle concerned. Cars for example, can run on a number of fuel types other than gasoline, such as natural gas, LPG or biofuel or electricity which creates various quantities of atmospheric pollution. A kilogram of carbon, whether contained in petrol, diesel, kerosene, or any other hydrocarbon fuel in a vehicle, leads to approximately 3.6 kg of CO 2 emissions. Due to the carbon content of gasoline, its combustion emits 2.3 kg / l (19.4 lb / US gal) of CO 2; since diesel fuel is more dense energy per unit volume, diesel emits 2.6 kg / l (22.2 lb / US gal). This figure is only the CO 2 emissions of the final fuel product and does not include additional CO 2 emissions created during the drilling, pumping, transportation and refining steps. Additional measures to reduce the efficiency of air conditioning, lights and tires.
Many drivers have the potential to improve their fuel efficiency significantly. These five basic fuel-efficient driving techniques can be effective. Simple, well-maintained, well-maintained, well-maintained and well-maintained fuel efficiency. There is a growing community of enthusiasts who develop and practice driving techniques to increase fuel efficiency and reduce consumption. Hypermilers have broken records of fuel efficiency, for example, achieving 109 miles per gallon in a Prius. In non-hybrid vehicles these techniques are also beneficial, with fuel efficiencies of up to 59 MPG in a Honda Accord Gold 30 MPG in an Acura MDX.
The most efficient machines for converting energy to electric motors, as used in electric vehicles. However, electricity is not a primary source of energy in the production of electricity. At present, it can be powered by electricity, delivered over an additional running rail, overhead catenary system or by on-board generators used in diesel-electric locomotives as common on the US and UK rail networks. Pollution produced from a remote power station, rather than “on site”. Pollution can be reduced by using more electricity and low carbon power for electricity. Some railways, such as the French SNCF and Swiss federal railways derive most, if not 100% of their power, from hydroelectric or nuclear power stations, hence atmospheric pollution from their rail networks is very low. This article has been translated into English by AEA Technology between London and Paris, which shows the trains on average, less than 2 hours per day.
In the future, hydrogen cars may be commercially available. Toyota is test marketing hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles in southern California where a series of hydrogen fueling stations has been established. Powered by Google Translate to نام والتعليقات والتجديدة المنتجات والتجديدة والتعليقات; These vehicles are poised to have near-zero pollution from the tailpipe (exhaust pipe). Potentially the atmospheric pollution could be minimal, provided the hydrogen is made by electrolysis using electricity from non-polluting sources such as solar, wind or hydroelectricity or nuclear. Commercial hydrogen production uses fossil fuels and produces more carbon dioxide than hydrogen. Because there are pollutants involved in the manufacture and destruction of a car and the production, transmission and storage of electricity and hydrogen, the use of the label “zero pollution” should be understood as applying to the conversion of stored energy into transportation. In 2004, a consortium of major auto-makers – BMW, General Motors, Honda, Toyota and Volkswagen / Audi – came up with “Top Tier Detergent Gasoline Standard” to gasoline brands in the US and Canada that meet their minimum standards for detergent content and do not contain metallic additives. Top Tier gasoline contains higher levels of detergent additives in order to prevent the build-up of deposits (typically
Electric Turbo Compounding (ETC) is a technology solution to the challenge of improving energy efficiency for the stationary power generation industry. Fossil fuel based power generation is predicted to continue for decades, especially in developing economies. This is against the global need to reduce carbon emissions, of which, a high percentage is produced by the power sector worldwide. ETC works by making gas and diesel-powered gensets (Electric Generators) work more efficiently and cleaner, by recovering waste energy from the exhaust to improve power density and fuel efficiency.