The Gulf Stream, together with its northern Atlantic Drift, is a warm Atlantic Ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. The process of western intensification causes the Gulf Stream to be a Northward Accelerating Current of the East Coast of North America. North Atlantic Drift, crossing to Northern Europe and the southern stream, the Canary Current, recirculating off West Africa. The Gulf Stream influences the climate of the east coast of North America from Florida to Newfoundland, and the west coast of Europe. Although there has been recent debate, There is no doubt that the climate of Western Europe and Northern Europe is warmer than it would otherwise be to the North Atlantic drift which is the northeastern section of the Gulf Stream. It is part of the North Atlantic Gyre. Its presence in the development of strong cyclones of all types, both within the atmosphere and within the ocean. The Gulf Stream is also a significant source of renewable energy generation. The Gulf Stream may be slowing down as a result of climate change. The Gulf Stream is typically 100 kilometers (62 mi) wide and 800 meters (2,600 ft) to 1,200 meters (3,900 ft) deep. The current velocity is fastest, with the maximum speed typically about 2.5 meters per second (5.6 mph).
European discovery of the Gulf Stream dates to the 1512 expedition of Juan Ponce de Leon, after which it became widely used by the Spanish Caribbean to Spain. A summary of Ponce de León’s travel log, on April 22, 1513, noted, “A current such that, they had a great wind, they could not proceed forward, but backward was known that the current was more powerful than the wind. ” Its existence was also known to Peter Martyr of Anghiera. Benjamin Franklin became interested in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns. In 1768, while in England, Franklin heard a curious complaint from the Colonial Board of Customs: Why did it take British packets New York, New York, United States merchant ship to reach Newport, Rhode Island, despite the London merchant ships leaving the river Thames the English Channel before they sailed across the Atlantic, while the packets left from Falmouth in Cornwall? Franklin asked Timothy Folger, his cousin twice removed (Nantucket Historical Society), at Nantucket Island whaling captain, for an answer. Folger explained that merchant ships routinely crossed the then-unnamed Gulf Stream-identifying it by the whale behavior, measurement of the water temperature and the speed of its bubbles, and changes in the water color-while the packet captains ran against it. Franklin worked with Folger and other experienced ship captains, learning enough to chart the Gulf Stream and giving it a name by which it is still known today. He offered this information to Anthony Todd, secretary of the British Post Office, but it was ignored by British sea captains. Franklin’s Gulf Stream chart was published in 1770 in England, where it was mostly ignored. Subsequent versions were printed in France in 1778 and the US in 1786.
The Gulf Stream is a western-intensive, driven by wind stress. The North Atlantic Drift, in contrast, is largely circulating-driven thermohaline. In 1958 the oceanographer Henry Stommel noted that “very little water from the Gulf of Mexico is actually in the Stream”. By carrying warm water to the Atlantic, it makes Western and especially Northern Europe warmer than it would otherwise be. However, the extent of its contribution to the current temperature differential between North America and Europe is a matter of contention, as it is a recent opinion that this temperature difference (beyond that caused by contrasting maritime and continental climates) is Rocky Mountains created by the Rocky Mountains.
A river of sea water, called the North Atlantic Equatorial Current, flows westward off the coast of Central Africa. When this current interacts with the northeastern coast of South America, the current forks into two branches. One passes into the Caribbean Sea, while a second, the West Indies, flows north and east of the West Indies. These two branches join north of the Straits of Florida. The trade winds blow westward in the tropics, and the westerlies blow eastward at mid-latitudes. This wind pattern applies to the Atlantic ocean. The resulting Sverdrup transport is equatorward. Because of conservation of potential vorticity caused by the northward-moving winds on the subtropical ridge s western periphery and the relative increase of northward moving water, transport is balanced by a narrow, accelerating poleward current, which flows along the western boundary of the ocean basin, outweighing the effects of friction with the western boundary current . The Gulf Stream is one of the most important of the Gulf Stream, which is one of the most recent developments in the Gulf Stream. This global process, known as western intensification, causes the boundary of an ocean basin, such as the Gulf Stream, to be stronger than those on the eastern boundary. As a consequence, the resulting Gulf Stream is a strong ocean current. It has 30 million cubic meters per second (30 sverdrups) through the Florida Straits. As it passes south of Newfoundland, this rate increases to 150 million cubic meters per second. The volume of the Gulf Stream dwarfs all the rivers in the Atlantic combined, which barely total 0.6 million cubic meters per second. It is weaker, however, than the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Given the strength and proximity of the Gulf Stream, the United States may be more vulnerable to large-scale sea-level anomalies, which significantly impact rates of coastal erosion. The Gulf Stream is typically wide and deep. The current velocity is fastest, with the maximum speed typically about. As it travels north, the warm water transported by the Gulf Stream undergoes evaporative cooling. The cooling is wind-driven: Wind moving over the water causes evaporation, cooling the water and increasing its salinity and density. When sea ice forms, a process known as brine exclusion. These two processes produce water that is denser and colder (or, more precisely, water that is still liquid at a lower temperature). In the North Atlantic Ocean, the water becomes so dense that it begins to sink down to less salty and less dense water. (The convective action is not unlike that of a lava lamp.) This downdraft of cold, dense water becomes a part of the North Atlantic Deep Water, a southgoing stream. Very little seaweed lies within the current, although seaweed lies in clusters to its east. In April 2018,
The Gulf Stream is influential on the climate of the Florida peninsula. The portion off the Florida coast, referred to as the current Florida, maintains an average water temperature during the winter. East winds moving over this warm water move warm over the Gulf Stream inland, helping to keep temperatures milder across the state than anywhere else in the Southeast during the winter. Also, the Gulf Stream, Nantucket, Nantucket being warmer during the winter. The North Atlantic Current of the Gulf Stream, along with similar warm air currents, helps keep Ireland and the west coast of Great Britain a couple of degrees warmer than the east. However, the difference is most dramatic in the western coastal islands of Scotland. A noticeable effect of the Gulf Stream and the strong westerly winds (driven by the warm water of the Gulf Stream), Europe takes place along the Norwegian coast. Northern parts of Norway is close to the Arctic zone, most of which is covered with ice and snow in winter. However, almost all of Norway’s coast remains free of ice and snow throughout the year. Weather systems warmed by the Gulf Stream drifting into Northern Europe, also warming the climate behind the Scandinavian mountains. Northern parts of Norway is close to the Arctic zone, most of which is covered with ice and snow in winter. However, almost all of Norway’s coast remains free of ice and snow throughout the year. Weather systems warmed by the Gulf Stream drifting into Northern Europe, also warming the climate behind the Scandinavian mountains. Northern parts of Norway is close to the Arctic zone, most of which is covered with ice and snow in winter. However, almost all of Norway’s coast remains free of ice and snow throughout the year. Weather systems warmed by the Gulf Stream drifting into Northern Europe, also warming the climate behind the Scandinavian mountains.
The warm water and temperature contrast along the edge of the Gulf Stream often increases the intensity of cyclones, tropical or otherwise. Tropical cyclone generation normally requires water temperatures in excess of. Tropical cyclone training is common over the Gulf Stream, especially in the month of July. Storms travel westward through the Caribbean and then in a northward direction and curve towards the eastern coast of the United States or on the Gulf of Mexico. Such storms have the potential to create strong winds and extensive damage to the United States’ Southeast Coastal Areas. Strong extratropical cyclones have been shown to deepen greatly along a shallow frontal zone, forced by the Gulf Stream itself during the cold season. Subtropical cyclones also tend to generate the Gulf Stream. 75 percent of such systems were reported between 1951 and 2000, with two annual peaks of activity during the months of May and October. Cyclones within the ocean form under the Gulf Stream, extending as deep as the ocean’s surface.
The theoretical maximum energy dissipation from Gulf Stream by turbines is in the range of 20-60 GW. One suggestion, which could theoretically supply power comparable to several nuclear power plants, would deploy a field of underwater turbines placed 300 meters (980 ft) under the center of the Gulf Stream core. Ocean thermal energy could also be harnessed to produce electricity using the temperature difference between cold water and warm surface water.
* Some of the RMS Titanic’s victims, whose bodies have been victimized by their lives, are likely to be caught in the Gulf Stream.
* Ocean Motion-Description of the Gulf Stream