Under the heading of a renewable energy directive, France has a target of producing 23% of its total energy needs from renewable energy by 2020. of the electricity sector and 10.5% of the transport sector’s demand. By the end of 2014, 14.3% of France’s total energy requirements came from renewable energy, a rise from 9.6% in 2005. The outlook for renewable energy in France was boosted by the publication in October 2016 of the “Multiannual programming of the energy “, showing a commitment to re-balancing the electricity mix towards renewables. According to the report, renewable electricity is planned to grow from 41 GW in 2014 to between 71 and 78 GW by 2023. Historically the electricity sector in France has been dominated by the country’s longstanding commitment to nuclear power. However, the report emphasizes that by 2025 more than half of France’s nuclear power capacity will be 40 years or older. Thus, there is a need to look at other sources, including renewables, to meet the future generating capacity shortfall. A key component of France’s renewable energy target, particularly for buildings and thermal insulation. The renewable targets are targeted to stimulate new trades and changes to existing trades to enable green growth. The EPP plan targets the reduction of the consumption of primary fossil energy by 22% in 2023 from 2012 levels (reference scenario) or a fallback scenario of an 11% reduction under favorable conditions (variant scenario). In terms of the reduction in primary consumption, petroleum products are targeted at fall by 23% between 2012 and 2023 (reference scenario) or 9.5% (variant scenario), gas by 16% (9% variant scenario) and coal by 37% ( 30% variant scenario). In the transport sector, France has a range of initiatives designed to promote renewable energy use and increase efficiency. These include changing transport behavior, such as a target of 10% of tele-worked days by 2030 to reduce consumption. By 2023, the country has 2.4 million rechargeable electric and hybrid vehicles, and 3% of NGV heavy duty vehicles. Biofuels blended with petrol are set for 1.8% in 2018 and 3.4% in 2023, and for diesel 1% in 2018 and 2.3% in 2023. By 2030, non-road freight transport is targeted to reach 20% of all goods. Initiatives to increase walking and cycling are also being undertaken. Car pooling and digital services will be promoted to increase the number of passengers in the public service and to the number of passengers.
During 2016, electricity generation accounted for 4% of total power, of which it was provided by hydroelectricity, 4.3% by wind power, 1.7% by solar power and 1.4% by bio energy, According to the report “Multiannual programming of GW by 2023 The energy for renewable energy is targeted to grow from 41 GW capacity in 2014 to 52 GW by 2018 and between 71 and 78 GW by 2023. The target for 2023 and consultations that may affect future deployment. The sources that are planned to grow faster with solar PV power with 500 MW of offshore wind power by 2018. Onshore wind power is set to grow from around GW in 2014 to between 22 and 26 GW by 2023. Offshore wind power is targeted to grow from no capacity in 2014 to between 3.5 GW and 9 GW by 2023 and 2 GW of marine energy. Solar PV power is projected to grow from around 5.3 GW in 2014 to between 18.2 GW and 20.2 GW by 2023. Hydroelectric power is already in development (500-750 MW) by 2023.
Solid biomass accounted for the largest share of renewable energy consumption in the heating and cooling sector at 8,661 ktoe (thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2014. The next largest source was provided by heat pumps at 1,794 ktoe. Heat accounts for about 95% of the energy produced by solid biomass, while the remaining 5% is used to produce electricity. Energy from wood and wood products accounts for almost all of this production, of which 73% is used to heat family dwellings. During 2015, heat consumption in France (excluding dependencies) from solid biomass amounted to 8,836 ktoe, of which 8,115 ktoe were accounted for by direct user of end user, and 721 ktoe from district heating sources. District heating networks were supplied during 2015 by both heat only plants (326 ktoe), and combined heat and power plants (395 ktoe).
The Thassalia marine geothermal plant is located in the Grand Port of Marseille and uses marine thermal energy to provide heating and cooling to buildings connected to its network. The first phase of the network was inaugurated in October 2016 and covered 150,000 square meters, the network will eventually cover around 500,000 square meters of Marseille. The plant pumps the seawater of the port of Marseille and extracts the natural heat from the water using large scale heat pumps to provide heating for the town. The summer of summer to the summer of the summer to the summer of the summer. The project is regarded as a flagship and is expected more
Biodiesel provided the largest share of renewable energy in the transport sector at 2,541 ktoe in 2014. In the same year Bioethanol provided the next largest share at 414 ktoe followed by renewable electricity at 251 ktoe. The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in France passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2016, making the country’s second largest plug-in market in Europe after Norway, and the world’s fifth.
Hydroelectric power is the largest single source of renewable electricity in France accounting for 12.2% of total domestic power consumption in 2016. According to industry sources in 2014 there were around 2,600 hydroelectric plants of varying capacity accounting for 25,400 MW of installed capacity, 436 of These plants were run by EDF and accounted for around 19,900 MW of the total capacity. In 2014 France was the world’s biggest producer of hydroelectricity, and Europe’s second largest after Norway, producing 69 TWh including pumped storage production. In 2016 aggregated hydroelectric plants of greater than 1 MW of the river accounted for 10,327 MW, the water reservoir accounted for 8,231 MW and pumped storage type 4,965 MW.
France has the second largest wind potential in Europe. Wind power capacity grew from 3,577 MW in 2008 to 10,358 MW by 2015 is France continues to develop this potential. As of year end 2015 all wind power in France is onshore, total onshore capacity is planned to more than double by 2023. France is committed to developing a large offshore capability, with the first 500MW of capacity scheduled to come online by 2018. By 2023 France could have up to 11 GW of offshore wind and marine energy combined.
Solar PV power grew from just 104 MW capacity in 2008 to 6.549 MW by year end 2015 making the world with the largest solar PV installed capacity in the world at that time. In January 2016, the President of France, Mr. Francois Hollande and the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, ugly the foundation stone for the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in Gwalpahari, Gurgaon, India. The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn The ISA will focus on promoting and developing solar energy and solar products. In 2018 EDF had plans to invest up to € 25 billion in PV power generation, and offers green electricity tariffs.
France opened the world’s first tidal power station, the Rance Tidal Power Station in 1966 and remained the world’s largest tidal station until 2011. Its 24 turbines reach a peak output of 240 MW with an annual output of around 500 GWh. The crossroads of the river in Brittany France, connecting the tourist towns of Dinard and Saint Malo providing both a roadbridge and a footbridge. In addition to the barrier is a popular destination in its own right between both tourists and anglers
France has an overall target of production of 23% of its total energy needs from renewable energy by 2020, encompassing 33% in the heating and cooling sector, 27% in the electricity sector and 10.5% in the transport sector.
By 2014 France had achieved a 14.3% renewable energy share of its total energy use, a figure a little below its target figure of 16% by that year. Figures for the transport and electricity sectors were around 4.1%. This can be explained by the targets for this sector, where it has been found to be easier to raise the share of renewable energy.